Credit & Copyright: Processing - Noel Carboni, Imaging - Greg Parker
Explanation: Supergiant star Gamma Cygni lies at the center of the Northern Cross, famous asterism in the constellation Cygnus the Swan. Known by the proper name Sadr, the bright star also lies at the center of this gorgeous skyscape, featuring a complex of stars, dust clouds, and glowing nebulae along the plane of our Milky Way galaxy. The field of view spans over 3 degrees (six Full Moons) on the sky and includes emission nebula IC 1318 and open star cluster NGC 6910. Left of Gamma Cyg and shaped like two glowing cosmic wings divided by a long dark dust lane, IC 1318's popular name is understandably the Butterfly Nebula. Above and left of Gamma Cyg, are the young, still tightly grouped stars of NGC 6910. Some distance estimates for Gamma Cyg place it at around 750 light-years while estimates for IC 1318 and NGC 6910 range from 2,000 to 5,000 light-years. Cygnus the Swan
the flower - wings -- tail
bow - ferro - Zora-aster
crescent - flower -- the "head of an Arrow";
Fixed star: ASELLUS AUSTRALIS
Constellation: Delta Cancer
Longitude 1900: 07LEO19. Longitude 2000: 08LEO43.
ASELLUS BOREALIS Gamma. 06LEO09 07LEO32 +21.28' +03.11' 08h43m A0 4.7
...outstretched stars as a Yoke.
Gamma (Asellus Borealis), delta (Asellus Australis), eta, and theta were the Persian lunar station Avra-k, the Cloud, and the Coptic Ermelia, Nurturing.
In this constellation, with some slight variations as to boundaries at different times in Hindu astronomy, — gamma (Asellus Borealis) and delta (Asellus Australis) – the Aselli - always being included and occasionally eta, theta, and Praesaepe, — was located the 6th nakshatra Pushya, "Flower", or Tishiya, "Auspicious", with Brihaspati, the priest and teacher of the gods, as presiding divinity. It was sometimes figured as a "Crescent",
and again as the "head of an Arrow"; it was also called Sidhaya, "Prosperous".
The Arabic manzil Al Nathrah, the Gap in the hair under the muzzle of the supposed immense ancient Lion that the Arabs had here, was chiefly formed by Praesaepe; but later gamma (Asellus Borealis) and delta (Asellus Australis) – the Aselli - were sometimes included, when it was Al Himarain, the Two Asses, a title adopted from the Greeks. The Arabs also knew it as Al Fnm al Asad and as Al Anf al Asad, the Mouth, and the Muzzle, of the Lion, both referring to the early figure.
Inconspicuous though it be, the Babylonians used delta to mark their 13th ecliptic constellation Arku-sha-nangaru-sha-shutu, the Southeast Star in the Crab; and Brown says that the Aselli, with eta, theta, and Praesaepe, were the Akkadian Gu-shir-kes-da, the "Yoke of the Enclosure". (Allen).
Fixed star: ADHAFERA
Constellation: Zeta Leo
Longitude 1900: 26LEO10. Longitude 2000: 27LEO34.
Declination 1900: +23.55'. Declination 2000: +23.25'.
Right ascension: 10h16m. Latitude: +11.51'.
Spectral class: F0. Magnitude: 3.6.
Suggested orb: 1 deg. approx. Planetary nature: Sat-Mer
History of the star: A double star on the crest of the Lion's mane in Leo the "Curl of the Lion's mane". It has been called Al Serpha, "the Funeral Pyre". (Robson).
The Arabic name for Adhafera is Ad-Dafirah (1), "The curl". In Arabia, this star, Adhafera (zeta) with Regulus (Alpha) Algieba (gamma), and eta (Al Jabbah) were the Arabic 8th manzil, Al Jabhah, the "Forehead". [Influences: Promotes love, benevolence, and help against enemies.] (Allen).
Etymology: ADHAFERA. Curl of the Lion's mane. It has been called the Funeral Pyre. The “pyre” could be a significant echo of the FERA element, as HeBHeR is FIRE in Hebrew (see “FIRE”). Or, the fire can merely be connected to the Leo fire sign imagery, and the lion’s mane. The mane points to the hairy PeR(GH)A or FeRA root seen in “PILE.” Arabic FaRVaH is a better source for FUR than the given Old French – PILLOW is related. More than a lock of this hair is probably an Ayin-Daled-Yod, (GH)aDeeY, meaning ornament. Along with any flashy fire, this theme is likely to be a showy symbol of the subject’s gorgeous locks of hair, or even if bald, his/her curling, flowing ego. (Isaac Mozeson).[The Word dictionary, Isaac Mozeson, Edenic (Biblical Hebrew), SPI books, ISBN 15671-942-0].
Fixed star: SADOR
Constellation: Gamma Cygnus
Longitude 1900: 23AQU28. Longitude 2000: 24AQU50.
Declination 1900: +39.56'. Declination 2000: +40.15'.
Right ascension: 20h22m. Latitude: +57.07'.
Spectral class: F8. Magnitude: 2.3.
Suggested orb: 1 deg. approx. Planetary nature: Ven-Mer
History of the star: A star in the breast of The Swan Cygnus. Sadr, or As-Sadr (1), from Arabic Al Sadr al Dajajah, "the Hen's Breast".
Christians saw in Cygnus the Cross of Calvary, Christi Crux, or Crux cum S. Helena. This Cross is formed by alpha (Deneb Adige), gamma (this star Sador), eta, and beta (Albireo), marking the upright along the Galaxy, more than 20° in length, zeta, epsilon (Gienah), gamma this star, and delta being the transverse. Gamma marks the center of the Cross.
These last (zeta, epsilon (Gienah), gamma this star, and delta) also were an Arab asterism, Al Fawaris, "the Riders"; alpha and kappa sometimes being added to the group.
Influence of the constellation: Cygnus gives a contemplative, dreamy, cultured and adaptable nature, the talents develop late. There is some love of water and swimming and the arts. By the Kabalists it is associated with the Hebrew letter Resh and the 20th Tarot Trump "Judgment". (Robson).
Fixed star: ETAMIN Eltanin, Rastaban
Constellation: Gamma Draco
Longitude 1900: 26SAG35. Longitude 2000: 27SAG58.
History of the star: A star in the right Eye of the Dragon, Draco. It was the pole star about 3500 BC. The Arabic name for Eltanin or Etamin is At-Tinnin (1), "The great serpent". Ras Eltanim, Eltanin, Ettanin, Etannin, Etanim, Etamin, etc., is from Al Ras al Tinnin, "the Dragon's Head", applied to this, as it also is to alpha (Thuban). The word Tinnin is nearly synonymous with Thu'ban.
This star was also called Rastaben, Rasaben, Rastaban "head of the snake".
It was one of Al'Awa'id, "the Mother Camels" which was known as the Quinque Dromedarii. In the Arabic theme for this constellation the stars beta (Alwaid), gamma (this star Etamin), nu (Kuma) and xi (Grumium) in the Head of the Dragon represent four mother camels protecting a baby camel from the attack of two hyenas (eta and zeta, Nodus 1). The nomads camp located nearby (the three unnamed stars in the neck of the Dragon: upsilon, tau, and sigma).
Apet, Bast, Mut, Sekhet, and Taurt were all titles of one goddess in the Nile worship, symbolized by this star, gamma Draconis, Etamin.
It is interesting to know that the Boeotian Thebes, the City of the Dragon, from the story of its founder, Cadmus, shared with its Egyptian namesake the worship of this star in a temple dedicated, so far as its orientation shows, about 1130 BCE, a cult doubtless drawn from the parent city (Thebes) in Egypt, and adopted in Greece, as also in Italy in the little temple to Isis in Pompeii. Here, however, the city authorities interfered with this star-worship in one of their numerous raids on the astrologers, and bricked up the opening whence the star was observed.
This star, Etamin, lies almost exactly in the zenith of Greenwich, in fact, it has been called the Zenith-star in Greenwich; and, being circumpolar, descends toward the horizon, but, without disappearing. (Allen).
Influence of the constellation: "According to Ptolemy the bright stars are like Saturn and Mars. Draco gives an artistic and emotional but somber nature, a penetrating and analytical mind, much travel and many friends, but danger of robbery and accidental poisoning. It gives craft, ingenuity, and valor. The Ancients said that when a comet was here, poison was scattered over the world. By the Kabalists it is associated with the Hebrew letter Mem and the 13th Tarot Trump, Death". (Robson).
Fixed star: POLARIS Cynosura
Constellation: Alpha Ursa Minor
Longitude 1900: 27GEM10. Longitude 2000: 28GEM34.