The twin Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft continue exploring where nothing from Earth has flown before. In the 34th year after their 1977 launches, they each are much farther away from Earth and the Sun than Pluto. Voyager 1 and 2 are now in the "Heliosheath" - the outermost layer of the heliosphere where the solar wind is slowed by the pressure of interstellar gas. Both spacecraft are still sending scientific information about their surroundings through the Deep Space Network (DSN).
The primary mission was the exploration of Jupiter and Saturn. After making a string of discoveries there -- such as active volcanoes on Jupiter's moon Io and intricacies of Saturn's rings -- the mission was extended. Voyager 2 went on to explore Uranus and Neptune, and is still the only spacecraft to have visited those outer planets. The adventurers' current mission, the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM), will explore the outermost edge of the Sun's domain. And beyond.
The latest data indicate that we are clearly in a new region where things are changing more quickly. It is very exciting. We are approaching the Solar System's frontier."
Space scientists are waiting for two other indicators to confirm that Voyager 1 is truly in interstellar space. One will be a dramatic fall in the level of charged particles recorded from the Sun itself inside the heliosphere bubble. The other will be a significant change in the direction of magnetic field lines surrounding the space probe.
Voyager 1's sister probe, Voyager 2, is still well within the Solar System's boundary at a distance of 14.7 billion kilometres (9.1 billion miles) but is the second most distant of spacecraft launched from Earth.
Voyager 1 has flown into or is on the cusp of a place no man or spacecraft has been before - Interstellar Space. For 35 years, the NASA probe has been on a journey that would take it outside the Sun's heliosphere, leaving the Solar System.
Was watching a space docu last week on BBC, and they was saying it takes 15 hours to send/recieve data from voyager..
im more interested in pioneer 10/12
especially with info nasa was putting out in the mid 80's
but since then its all gone quiet.. apart from teh countless infra red sats/telscopes they haz in orbit/and on earth.. (ie WISE and the vaticans LUCIFER)
What's the science on Europa? wasnt the ESA gonna send a robot there? there interested in it because they believe there's ocean beneath a thin sheet of ice covering the whoel star.
you can understand why they're keen on oxygen/carbon/h20 based environments, but some of these sicentistics say the same conditions on Earth to foster life which is the same conditons for other places which is bs
yeah europa, i think thats will be launched.. well in 3 years? i was watching the sky at night, and they had some experts on their who where planning experiments and missions..
they showed some very sic images of europa. they now say is has tectonic plates/fault lines .. lol. due to the huge amount of steam that comes off of europa.. even tho its all ice!! similarly for titan :S
'Jupiter's moon Europa may be a habitable world. Evidence points strongly to a global subsurface ocean beneath an ice shell. The paucity of large craters argues for a surface age of only 60 million years, implying that Europa is still geologically active. Tidal flexing and nonsynchronous rotation of the floating ice shell generate stresses that can fracture and deform the surface to create Europa's troughs, ridges, and bands. Europa's astonishing geology and astrobiological potential make it a top priority for spacecraft exploration.'
NASA's Cassini spacecraft has found possible ice volcanoes on Saturn's moon Titan that are similar in shape to those on Earth that spew molten rock.
Topography and surface composition data have enabled scientists to make the best case yet in the outer solar system for an Earth-like volcano landform that erupts in ice. The results were presented today at the American Geophysical Union meeting in San Francisco.
"When we look at our new 3-D map of Sotra Facula on Titan, we are struck by its resemblance to volcanoes like Mt. Etna in Italy, Laki in Iceland and even some small volcanic cones and flows near my hometown of Flagstaff," said Randolph Kirk, who led the 3-D mapping work, and is a Cassini radar team member and geophysicist at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Science Center in Flagstaff, Ariz.
Scientists have been debating for years whether ice volcanoes, also called cryovolcanoes, exist on ice-rich moons, and if they do, what their characteristics are. The working definition assumes some kind of subterranean geological activity warms the cold environment enough to melt part of the satellite's interior and sends slushy ice or other materials through an opening in the surface. Volcanoes on Jupiter's moon Io and Earth spew silicate lava.
Some cryovolcanoes bear little resemblance to terrestrial volcanoes, such as the tiger stripes at Saturn's moon Enceladus, where long fissures spray jets of water and icy particles that leave little trace on the surface. At other sites, eruption of denser materials might build up volcanic peaks or finger-like flows. But when such flows were spotted on Titan in the past, theories explained them as non-volcanic processes, such as rivers depositing sediment. At Sotra, however, cryovolcanism is the best explanation for two peaks more than 1,000 meters (3,000 feet) high with deep volcanic craters and finger-like flows.
"This is the very best evidence, by far, for volcanic topography anywhere documented on an icy satellite," said Jeffrey Kargel, a planetary scientist at the University of Arizona, Tucson. "It's possible the mountains are tectonic in origin, but the interpretation of cryovolcano is a much simpler, more consistent explanation."
Kirk and colleagues analyzed new Cassini radar images. His USGS group created the topographic map and 3-D flyover images of Sotra Facula. Data from Cassini's visual and infrared mapping spectrometer revealed the lobed flows had a composition different from the surrounding surface. Scientists have no evidence of current activity at Sotra, but they plan to monitor the area.
"Cryovolcanoes help explain the geological forces sculpting some of these exotic places in our solar system," said Linda Spilker, Cassini project scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif. "At Titan, for instance, they explain how methane can be continually replenished in the atmosphere when the sun is constantly breaking that molecule down."
ice jets shooting off of europa
kinda like geezers, well the same as geezers just X1000 the size lol
can post more.., but wont.. lol the more informative shit i post, the more hate i get.. lolol