yo thats what Im working on! in some weird sence
From the Zhou Dynasty to the Eastern Han Dynasty many Taoist Internal Alchemists and hermits longed for a secluded place deep in Mount Wudang for their practice of meditation and esoteric arts:
Yee Xee, the famous disciple of Lao Tzu, once practiced internal alchemy in First Heavenly Gate on Wudang. In the Tang and Song Dynasty, Taoism practice grew strong on Wudang; famous Taoist figures such as Yao Jian, Sun Si Miao, Lu Dong Bing, Guo Tian Wei, and Chen Tuan began their practice of Internal Alchemy in retreat on this sacred mountain.
Dai Meng, a famous army general in the Han Dymasty, left his military office and studied internal alchemy with his teacher on Wudang. Ma Ming Sheng, Yin Chang Sheng, widely-known alchemy practitioners in the Eastern Han Dynasty, once sought retreat here in Wudang to practice alchemy in company with the beautiful green mountains, lucid creeks and deep green bamboo forests.
Ever since the foundation of Taoism in China, Mt. Wudang has gradually became the most ideal location for Taoists activities and retreat practice in central China.
In the Wei-Jin South and North Dynasty, the Tao- practitioners who moved into Mt. Wudang increased in number. In the Tang and Song Dynasty, Wudang Taoism evolved into its peak development time, during which famous Taoist figures such as Yao Jian, Sun Si Miao, Lu Dong Bing, Guo Tian Wei, and Chen Tuan began to establish their hermitage house here for their undertakings of the practice of Taoist Internal Alchemy one after another. The Ming Dynasty anounced the peak period for development of Wudang Taoism, and Zhen Wu was respected as a God at the royal palace, and Zhang San feng, the famous Taoist and founder of Taiji on Mt. Wudang, was called upon to show up in the royal court.
SECTS OF WUDANG
Before the Northern Song Dynasty, there is no prominent sect division within Wudang Taoism. But common people like to divide the sects into two categories, one is Elixir and Caldron sect, another is Incantation sect. After the South Song Dynasty, they gradually evolved into the Quan Zhen sect, Zheng Yi sect, Five Dragon sect, Purity and Nothingness sect, and others. Though there are some difference existing among them; the mainstream inclined to seek a harmonization among all the sects.
In 1167, a Taoist from Shan'Xi, came and settled down in Mt. Wudang to establish the QuanZhan sect of Taoism. In 1275, Wang Si Zhen came and lodged in the Five Dragon temple to teach the ideas of the sect and his disciples once reached more than 100.
Upper Purity Sect
It was created in the Eastern Jin Dynasty. In 1141, Taoist Shun Ji Ren wandered into Mt. Wudang and settled down in the Five Dragon temple, teaching disciples and renovating the collapsed houses. Beacause he based his activity solely at this location, some people call the sect as “Upper Purity Five Dragon Sect.”
Purity and Nothingness Sect
This is the most influencial Taoism sect which originated from the Upper Purity sect. They practiced incantation and claimed all methods came from the Primeval Heaven God. In the Song and Yuan Dynasty this sect was once very populer in the south of China. The northern branch based their activity in Mt. Wudang and later their disciples increased to reach more than several hundred.
San Feng Sect
In the Ming Dynasty the famous Taoist Zhang San Feng came to settle down in Mt.Wudang. Zhang San Feng began to set up San Feng sect who proposed the combination of three religion (Buddhism, Taoism and Confuciusism), cultivation of self for the benefit of the others and esteeming Zhen Wu as the highest God. He is also looked at as the founder of Taiji Quan.
Dragon Gate Sect
Qiu Chu Ji, the disciple of Wang Cong Yang, created the sect. In 1669 Wang Chang Yue, the resurgence successor of Dragon Gate sect, began his journey southward with his disciples from Beijing and set up to offer his teachings in Yu Xu Temple in Wudang. Ever since then the Dragon Gate sect has become the mainstream of Wudang Taoism and many Taoists are disciples of this sect. In the Qing Dynasty, the Dragon Gate sect became more and more popular, and is the main branch of Taoism found in China today.
Xuan Wu Sect
In the Yong Le Period of Ming Dynasty (1413) the emperor ordered the start of a very big construction project in Mt. Wudang. Zhang Yu Qing,one Taoist from the Zheng Yi sect, acted upon the order and called more than four hundred Taoists from nearby provinces and brought them to Mt. Wudang. All these Taoist regarded Zhen Wu as the common God and respected Zhang San Feng as their founder. Therefore, people called them Zhen Wu Xuan Wu sect. In 1989, by a common understanding, the Taoism Association of Wudang agreed to change the name of the sect as “Wudang Xuan Wu sect.”
Lang Mei Sect
It is the typical local sect in Wudnag area. In 1412, Taoist Priest Shun Bi Yun who lived in the Southern Cave Temple created the sect. His disciple called him the Pure Green Grand Master.
it's the same I tink
daoism and taoism
Theory and Doctrine of Yin and Yang
It was mentioned earlier that the great unification split into Yin and Yang. According to The Tao Te Ching by Lao Tzu, "reversal is the movement of the Tao". Both in the sphere of nature and human affairs, when the development of anything brings it to one extreme, a reversal to the other extreme takes place. Everything has its own negation. This is the principle of the Yin and Yang interaction in nature and human affairs.
This concept is also associated with the Book of Changes – I Ching, “When the sun has reached its meridian, it declines and when the moon has become full, it wanes.” For,” Reversal is the way of the Tao.” What is true with natural phenomena is also true in human nature. This concept had a profound influence on the behavior of many a Chinese. It is said that they remain cautious even in times of success and prosperity and hopeful even in times of failure and poverty. This doctrine of the Golden Median is based on the concept of harmony between Yin and Yang. Enough is enough, never too much. It is better to have less than to have too much. Having too much and overdoing something may be counter-productive and may run the risk of getting the opposite of what one expects.
Yin and Yang were created due to the observation of instability in nature. Yin and Yang exist for the stability of nature. For example, in the vacuum near an unstable nucleus, a Yin and Yang pair (electron -positron) was created to render stability to the area. A stable atom exists mainly due to the presence of positive protons and negative electrons. Proper balance and harmony can be maintained by an intermingling of the Yin and Yang, the moon and the sun, the Earth and the Heaven, and the transformation of all things will proceed smoothly. There is an interplay and exchange between the male and female and all things will be produced. The Yang gives the beginning and the Yin completes it.
Yin and Yang cannot exist alone in a separate isolation. One cannot exist without the other. Yin separated from Yang or Yang separated from Yin in isolation without any interaction with each other is Alienation. Any philosophy that promotes the positive, the strong, the bright, the visible and the absolute matter and denies the negative, the weak, the dark, the invisible and the spiritual and conducts one's life in accordance with such a philosophy, lives in a state of alienation. And any philosophy that promotes the latter and denies the former is equally alienated. So, without the combination of the Yin and Yang pair, all other mechanisms of interaction would not be possible. A system that does not tolerate the Yin and Yang contradiction suffers alienation, poverty and meaninglessness. When the alienation is out of proportion, the survival of human society is in danger. Changes are then necessary to remove the elements that cause the alienation in order to restore the dialectic of harmony.
Yin and Yang are two opposite elementary principles from which all phenomena are produced. This concept is associated with the Five Elements in the ancient medicine theory of the first millennium B.C. in China. Reality is a pair of opposites and a group of five elements on rotation succeeding one another each taking its turn. This concept is also present in the writings of philosopher Hsun Tzi. Opposites of Yin and Yang are complementary to each other for the formation of a stable system. Such a contradiction is necessary for the survival of any living system. Alienation on the other hand, is harmful to the survival of the system. With out the complementing aspect there will be no inheritance of genetic replication. The examples of complementing aspects of yin and yang include the paradoxes of the matter and the mind, materialism and idealism, and the biological and the spiritual. Both are parts of the unity as in a ring. There is no moral priority of one over the other, for no point in a ring is before or after any other point. Alienation is removed, but complementary aspects are preserved for the life process.
Intrinsically, Yin does not exist as purely Yin, nor does Yang exist as purely Yang. There is Yin in the Yang, and Yang in the Yin. Yin and Yang do not only complement each other, they are also inside each other. Yin influences Yang not only from without but also from within. And Yang influences Yin in the same manner. This is interpenetration, another aspect of the Yin and Yang relationship. In other words there is action in inactions, strength in weakness, unity in diversity, victory in failure and life in sacrifice. In human society there is no such thing as pure socialism or pure private enterprise. There will always be private enterprise in socialism and socialism in private enterprise - society. The two will penetrate each other for stability and survival.
Interpenetration allows the presence of Yin in the interior of Yang and Yang inside Yin. The Yin and the Yang in the interior of each half can expand or contract internally. Motion and development are associated with such activity. The two halves can transform into each other. So there are both external and internal contradictions and for that matter both external and internal interactions. The result of such transformation is the production of pluralism. Mutual production and mutual overcoming as the seasons rotate in cycles of rising and falling, which unite man and nature. All things are related. Reality is also a process of mutual transformation. But the essence of reality is always the same, the will to survive. Transformation between Yin and Yang ensures the success of the survival and meaningful life in society.
Harmony is not static. It is a result of dynamic operation. Harmony between Yin and Yang reinforced the Doctrine of the Golden Median. In this respect, Chinese philosophy is concerned more with relationship than with substance. The universe is a well-ordered state of existence but it is also in a state of constant change and readjustment. Things are forever interfused and intermingled. The universe is a realm of perpetual activity. The activity takes the form of cycles of Yin and Yang. It is for a dynamic homeostasis for the survival of a system. Harmony does not stand still. It has a progressive direction leading to the development of morality, the stability of the society and the maturation of a civilization.
Yin Yang Doctrine within Taoism
The Yin and Yang concept is very simple. Yet it is quite difficult to understand it in a deep manner. The concept is derived from the experiences gained by practitioners engaged in the pursuit of Union with Tao. The Yin and Yang interactions that occur in our daily life lie within the logic of our common sense. The successful practice of Yin and Yang in life leads to a great state of harmony. This is the basis of good health and as such is maintained by the Qi, which is both physical and moral. The concept of Yin and Yang is thus the cornerstone of dialectics in Chinese philosophy.
The movement of Tao gives rise to Qi. The spontaneity of Qi gives rise to the interactions of Yin and Yang. Yin and Yang are the opposite expressions of the same reality. Mass and energy are the opposite expressions of the same Qi. Qi is the mass and Qi is the energy, yet Qi is also the transforming force between mass and energy. Energy is represented by Yang and mass by Yin. Yin and Yang are different and opposite; they undergo movement and transformation in the Infinite Emptiness. The union of Yin and Yang becomes harmony. This union of harmony is possible because they are opposite. It is because they are opposite that interactions take place. This is the source of interactions. The Yin and Yang concept is applied to all opposites in the universe, to substance and to motion. For motion and stillness also are intrinsic with Yin and Yang.
Thus the Infinite Emptiness is the field; Qi resting is the mass - Yin; Qi in motion is the energy, Yang; and the Qi both resting and in motion is the transforming force.
According to Lao Tzu, all things carry Yin and Yang, through the impact of the Qi, harmony is accomplished.
The Dialectics of the Qi
The Canon of Internal Medicine assigned different domains and substances to Yin and Yang. "Heaven is Yang, the Earth Yin, the Sun is Yang, the Moon Yin," "Yin is internal to preserve Yang, Yang is external to utilize Yin.” "Water is Yin, fire is Yang.” The structural substance of life is Yin and the functional activity is Yang. "Yin and Yang are the Tao of Heaven and Earth, the principles of all things, the parents of all transformations, the origin of life and death. The interactions of Yin and Yang include the dialectic of not only the unification of opposites but also the complimenting aspect of opposites.
Yin and yang may oppose each other but also attract each other. In Chapter 46 of Canon of Internal Medicine, it is recorded that “Where there is strength, there is also weakness. Too strong is conducive to too much anger, and too weak is liable to be hurt. ” “There is Yin inside Yang, and Yang inside Yin.” The interpenetration and contradictions of Yin and Yang creates new substances and conceptual significance. There is no limit to the evolution of the Yin and Yang opposites, generating new phenomena and quality ad infinitum.
The origin of things will evolve in quantitative changes, while the limit of things will evolve in qualitative changes. From the beginning to the end of life, there will be changes and if the interactions get out of control, disorders and diseases will ensue. All the changes should lead to homeostatic harmony to ensure health.
To maintain homeostatic balance is not only a biological necessity but also a philosophical issue. The human body possesses the ability to maintain and regulate the structure and function of life unto harmony. The Five Element System is a demonstration of the Five Activating Forces operating not in a mechanical way but with mutual interactions and a feedback mechanism. It is not just a reaction of cause and effect, but with interactions resulting from the inter-relatedness of all the Five Substances in nature or the Five Activating Forces of all the internal organs and glands of the body. Cause and effect is direct, but interrelatedness also considers the indirect interactions.
Some people think that since Yin and Yang are opposites, therefore they must be hostile to each other and fight to eliminate each other. This is a philosophical blunder. If Yin and Yang fight then nature will not be in harmony and there will be chaos everywhere.
The human body does fight diseases, but the objective is to regain the Yin and Yang balance and health. Diseases and excesses are alienation and as such must be removed to restore a balance of Yin and Yang in the living system.
"Reversal is the movement of Tao." This is the secret of life and the law of nature.
When things have gone too far to the extreme, there will be a movement of reversal. This is how the body develops defense mechanism and the physical world develops changes in order to return to the state of harmony.
The entire mechanism of the reversal is simply via the operation of Yin and Yang through the Five Element system.
Laozi Debate Volume 51 Number 6, November/December 1998
by Spencer P.M. Harrington
The 1993 discovery of the oldest version of a seminal Daoist text in a late fourth-century B.C. tomb in Guodian, Hubei Province, China, has provoked scholarly debate about the origins of the Daoist and Confucian traditions and the relationship between them. The text, known as the Laozi or Daodejing (The Book of the Way and Its Power), is considered sacred to 20 million Daoists worldwide and has been widely read and memorized by educated Chinese for centuries. A profoundly influential work that encourages readers to obey the natural order (or dao) rather than human authority, the Laozi has been translated more times than any book other than the Bible. The text of the Guodian Laozi, which is at least 2,350 years old, was embargoed until Chinese scholars prepared a modern Chinese transcription, which was published earlier this year. The work was finally scrutinized at a recent Dartmouth College conference.
The Guodian Laozi is 150 years older than any other known version and was found in a small tomb possibly belonging to a tutor of one of the crown princes of the Warring States period (476-221 B.C.) kingdom of Chu. The tomb was excavated by government archaeologists after grave robbers had dug a small hole and removed a few objects. Fortunately, the looters ignored the Laozi, which was written with a brush on bamboo slips and tied together in three bundles that were stored with 15 other texts. The cache is the "Chinese equivalent of the Dead Sea Scrolls," says Sarah Allan, professor of Chinese studies at Dartmouth. "They are works that are already changing our outlook on the formation of the early Daoist and Confucian traditions." The 15 additional texts, which were not studied at the meeting, are primarily Confucian material associated with Zisi, Confucius' grandson. Only one of these texts has ever been seen before.
The three bundles include material from 32 of the modern text's 81 chapters. Twenty-four of the book's chapters correspond to chapters of the modern edition. The remaining eight include only fragments of today's chapters. The sequence of the material on the bamboo slips is also totally different from all other known versions. Equally perplexing is an entirely new text Chinese scholars are calling The Great One Generated Water that was found attached to one of the Laozi bundles. The Great One is written in the same hand as the Laozi strips in the bundle, and it is not clear whether this new text was considered part of the larger one.
Scholars at the conference considered two possible explanations for why the Guodian Laozi is incomplete and out of sequence, says Robert Henricks, professor of Chinese religions at Dartmouth. The first is that the bamboo slips were assembled in random order and represent excerpts of a larger, complete text. These may have been chapters the tutor was fond of teaching to the prince and others. This possibility is favored by scholars from mainland China, many of whom feel strongly that the book was authored by one person, Laozi ("Old Master"), a shadowy sixth-century B.C. philosopher said to have been Confucius' teacher. The Laozi's antiauthoritarian teachings have been considered a counterpoint to Confucianism's reverence for ritual and hierarchy, and the two philosophical schools have long argued over whether Daoism or Confucianism is older. Current Chinese scholarship favors the Daoists.
The other possibility, favored mostly by Western scholars, is that the Guodian bundles are collections of sayings that were circulating in fourth-century B.C. China and were later combined with other sources by one or several editors to produce an updated version of the book, known from a text dating to 200 B.C. discovered in a tomb in Mawangdui, Hunan Province, in 1973.
The philosophical orientation of the different Guodian bundles awaits further research. Some scholars say they focus on different subjects, such as ruling and self-improvement. While it is possible the first two bundles were written by the same hand, Henricks says the third was clearly brushed by a different person. No definitive statement can yet be made about this scribe's interests and beliefs.
Scholars of early China have been tantalized by reports of another discovery of philosophical writings dating to the same period as the Guodian cache. Unfortunately, these texts were stolen from a woman's tomb a few miles from Guodian and smuggled to Hong Kong. Although they were bought back and are now being prepared for publication, Allan says the scholarly value of these texts has been compromised by their theft because they may well be incomplete.