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Old 06-15-2012, 02:06 PM   #1
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A pink ribbon is a symbol of breast cancer awareness. It may be worn to honor those who have been diagnosed with breast cancer, or to identify products that the manufacturer would like to sell to consumers that are interested in breast cancer. Pink ribbons, which can be made inexpensively, are sometimes sold as fundraisers, much like poppies on Remembrance Day.

The pink ribbon is associated with individual generosity, faith in scientific progress, and a "can-do" attitude. It encourages consumers to focus on the emotionally appealing ultimate vision of a cure for breast cancer, rather than on the fraught path between current knowledge and any future cures (Sulik 2010, pages 359–361).

Promotion of the pink ribbon as a symbol for breast cancer has not been credited with saving any lives. Wearing or displaying a pink ribbon has been denounced as a kind of slacktivism, because it has no practical positive effect (Landeman 2008). Critics say that the feel-good nature of pink ribbons and pink consumption distracts society from the lack of progress (Sulik 2010, pages 365–366). It is also criticized for reinforcing gender stereotypes and objectifying women and their breasts (Sulik 2010, pages 372–374).

Shopping for the cure

Thousands of breast cancer-themed products are developed and sold each year (Ave 2006). Some of these, like pink ribbons and awareness bracelets, have no purpose other than as a type of status symbol that displays the wearer's interest in breast cancer. Others are everyday products that have been repackaged or repositioned to take advantage of cause-related marketing, such as teddy bears, clothing, jewelry, candles, and coffee mugs (Ehrenreich 2001). These blended value objects offer consumers an opportunity to simultaneously buy an object and make a tiny donation to a breast cancer organization. Some of these products are produced or sold by breast cancer survivors or charities for fundraising purposes (Ehrenreich 2001).

Manufacturers also produce products with pink labels or pink ribbon logos that promise to donate a sum of money to support the cause (Levine 2005). The donation is typically capped, so that it is reached after a low level of sales, although in some cases, the company is providing only free advertising for a selected charity. Although advertising costs are rarely disclosed, companies often spend far more money advertising "pink products" and tie-ins than they donate to charitable organizations supporting research or patients. For example, in 2005, 3M spent US $500,000 advertising post-it notes printed with a pink ribbon logo. Sales were nearly double what the company expected, but the campaign resulted in only a $300,000 donation (Levine 2005).

Pink products have also been condemned as promoting consumerism, materialism, and environmental degradation. Critics are also concerned that the ubiquity of pink products may mislead people into thinking that significant progress has been made, and that small, individual actions, like buying a breast cancer-themed product, are sufficient (Stukin 2006).
The first breast cancer awareness stamp in the U.S., featuring a pink ribbon, was issued 1996. As it did not sell well, a semi-postal stamp without a pink ribbon, the breast cancer research stamp, was designed in 1998. Products like these emphasize the relationship between being a consumer and supporting women with breast cancer (King 2006, pages 61–79).

In Canada, the Royal Canadian Mint produced 30 million 25-cent coins with pink ribbons during 2006 for normal circulation (Royal Canadian Mint 2006). Designed by the mint's director of engraving, Cosme Saffioti (reverse), and Susanna Blunt (obverse), this colored coin is the second in history to be put into regular circulation (Royal Canadian Mint 2006).
Business marketing campaigns, particularly sales promotions for products that increase pollution or that encourage the development of breast cancer, such as high-fat foods, alcohol, pesticides, or the parabens and phthalates used by most cosmetic companies, have been condemned as pinkwashing (a portmanteau of pink ribbon and whitewash) (Mulholland 2010). Such promotions generally result in a token donation to a breast cancer-related charity, while exploiting the consumers' fear of cancer and grief for people who have died to drive sales (Landeman 2008). Critics say that these promotions, which net more than US $30 million each year just for fundraising powerhouse Susan G. Komen for the Cure, do little more than support the marketing machines that produce them (Stukin 2006).

Two significant campaigns against pink consumption are the National Breast Cancer Coalition's "Not Just Ribbons" campaign, and Breast Cancer Action's "Think Before You Pink" campaign. NBCC's "Not Just Ribbons" which opposed the hypocrisy of people and businesses who use pink ribbons to promote their products or themselves, but ignore or oppose substantive issues, such as genetic discrimination, access to medical care, patient rights, and anti-pollution legislation (Sulik 2010, pages 366–368). "Think Before You Pink" encouraged consumers to ask questions about pink products, e.g., to find out how much of a donation was being made (Sulik 2010, pages 369–372).

The goal of breast cancer awareness campaigns is to raise the public's "brand awareness" for breast cancer, its detection, its treatment, and the need for a reliable, permanent cure. Increased awareness has increased the number of women receiving mammograms, the number of breast cancers detected, and the number of women receiving biopsies (Sulik 2010, pages 157–210). It has also shifted the stage at which breast cancers are detected, so that more tumors are discovered in an earlier, more treatable stage. Marketing efforts have significantly reduced the stigma associated with the disease.

Generally speaking, breast cancer awareness campaigns have been highly effective in getting attention for the disease. Breast cancer receives significantly more media coverage than other prevalent cancers, such as prostate cancer (Arnst 2007). Because breast cancer awareness receives so much attention, and has become such a large scale campaign the actual purpose of the campaign can become hidden. People talk about the "fight" against breast cancer, but the awareness campaign is not about the cure.

Advertisments

Many corporate and charitable organizations run advertisements related to breast cancer, especially during National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, in the hope of increasing sales by aligning themselves with a positive, helpful message (King 2006). In addition to selling pink products, corporate advertisements may promote the company's progressive policies, or may provide free advertising for a chosen charity. Medical institutions may run advertisements for mammogram or other breast-related services. Non-profit organizations often benefit from public service announcements, which are free advertisements provided by newspapers, radio and television stations, and other media.

Some marketing blurs the line between advertisements and events, such as flash mobs as a form of guerrilla marketing. Advertising campaigns on Facebook have encouraged users to use sexual innuendo and double entendres in their status updates to remind readers about breast cancer. In 2009, the campaign asked women to post the color of their brassieres, and in 2010, the campaign asked women to post where they keep their purses, resulting in status messages such as "I like it on the floor" (Kingston 2010). These campaigns have been criticized as sexualizing the disease (Kingston 2010).

The typical participant in the breast cancer movement, and therefore the advertisers' target audience, is a white, middle-aged, middle-class, well-educated woman (King 2006, pages 110–111).

Some corporate sponsors are criticized for having a conflict of interest. For example, some of the prominent sponsors of these advertisements include businesses that sell the expensive equipment needed to perform screening mammography; an increase in the number of women seeking mammograms means an increase in their sales. Their sponsorship is thus not a voluntary act of charity, but an effort to increase their sales (King 2006, page 37). The regulated drug and medical device industry uses the color pink, positive images, and other themes of the pink ribbon culture in direct-to-consumer advertising to associate their breast cancer products with the fear, hope, and wholesome goodness of the breast cancer movement (Sulik 2010, page 206–208). This is particularly evident in advertisements designed to sell screening mammograms.

Despite having been determined to be ineffective in low-risk and average-risk women, many charities still advertise breast self-examinations as a means of simultaneously raising awareness, encouraging early detection, and increasing the visibility of their organizations. Other organizations' advertisements now advocate breast awareness, which is paying attention to any changes in the breast that may require medical attention.

Media

Although more women die from lung cancer, breast cancer receives far more attention in women's magazines than any other cancer. Until the mid-1990s, nearly all of these stories were written from the perspective of the expert, who doled out advice. Since then, the illness narrative, describing the personal experiences of individual patients, has become more prominent. (Sulik 2010, page 133).
Embedded marketing, branded content and frequent feature stories amount to free advertising for the brand and for the organizations that support it.

Breast cancer as a brand

Breast cancer advocacy uses a the pink ribbon and the color pink as a concept brand to raise money and increase screening. The breast cancer brand is strong: People who support the "pink brand" identify themselves as members of the socially aware niche market, who are in favor of women's health, screening mammography, positive thinking, and willing submission to the current mainstream medical opinion (Sulik 2010, page 22).

The brand ties together fear of cancer, hope for early identification and successful treatment, and the moral goodness of women with breast cancer and anyone who visibly identifies themselves with breast cancer patients. This brand permits and even encourages people to substitute conscientious consumption and individual symbolic actions, like buying or wearing a pink ribbon, for concrete, practical results, especially collective political action aimed at discovering non-genetic causes of breast cancer (Sulik 2010, pages 133–146).

The establishment of the brand and the entrenchment of the breast cancer movement has been uniquely successful, because no countermovement opposes the breast cancer movement or believes breast cancer to be desirable (King 2006, page 111).

from:

King, Samantha (2006). Pink Ribbons, Inc.: Breast Cancer and the Politics of Philanthropy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 0-8166-4898-0.


for a content of sources used please scroll to the bottom of
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Breast_cancer_awareness
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Last edited by Soul Controller; 06-15-2012 at 02:09 PM.
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Old 06-15-2012, 02:11 PM   #2
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Old 06-15-2012, 03:54 PM   #3
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a lot of truth was said here but a lot was repeating itself. can u not cut it down a bit
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I wonder if she has cancer because women that are bald headed usually have cancer.


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Old 06-15-2012, 06:24 PM   #4
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Rectal prolapse

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Rectal prolapse Classification and external resources
Large rectal prolapse ICD-10 K62.3 ICD-9 569.1 OMIM 176780 DiseasesDB 11189 eMedicine med/3533 MeSH D012005 Rectal prolapse normally describes a medical condition wherein the walls of the rectum protrude through the anus and hence become visible outside the body.[1]
Contents


Types

There are three chief conditions which come under the title rectal prolapse:
  • Full-Thickness rectal prolapse describes the entire rectum protruding through the anus.[2]
  • Mucosal prolapse describes only the rectal mucosa (not the entire wall) prolapsing.[3]
  • Internal intussusception wherein the rectum collapses but does not exit the anus.[4]
Causes

Rectal prolapse is caused by the weakening of the ligaments and muscles that hold the rectum in place. In most people, the anal sphincter is weak. Rectal prolapse may occur due to the following causes: long-term constipation, long-term straining during defecation,[5][6][7] long term diarrhea[citation needed], high gastrointestinal helminth loads [8], pregnancy and stresses of child-birth, previous surgery, cystic fibrosis, C.O.P.D., and sphincter paralysis.
Progression

The condition of rectal prolapse, a type of rectal rupture, undergoes progression, beginning with prolapsation during bowel movements, through Valsalva maneuvers (sneezing and so forth), then through daily activities such as walking until finally it may become chronic and ceases to retract.
Treatment


Micrograph showing a rectal wall with changes seen in rectal prolapse. H&E stain.


Partial prolapse may be treated by a diet high in fiber.[9]
Pharmaceutically, the condition may only be treated secondarily (by treating constipation) so as to avoid further straining.
The alternative is surgery. It may be divided into two forms of procedure: abdominal surgery and perineal surgery.
  • Abdominal surgery - for younger patients, but is more dangerous[10]
    • Anterior resection
    • Marlex rectopexy
    • Suture rectopexy
    • Resection rectopexy
  • Perineal surgery - often performed on older patients and is less dangerous[10]
    • Anal encirclement
    • Delorme mucosal sleeve resection, which involves rectopexy in the sacral hollow or to the promontory with a synthetic material[11]
    • Altemeier perineal rectosigmoidectomy
    • Hemorrhoidectomy
  • Children are treated with linear cauterization
  • Manchester operation is used for combined pelvic prolapse.
Recently, robotic-assisted surgery has been introduced as a treatment option.[12]
Notes

Because most sufferers are elderly, the condition is generally under-reported.[13] The condition can also occur in children. [14]
Deliberate prolapse ("rosebud")

This is a prolapse which occurs as a result of intentional dilatation of the anal sphincter for sexual gratification. The colloquial term for the prolapse which results intentionally during sexual activity is a "rosebud". This is a type of sexual fetishism and is associated with 'fisting' and 'anal stretching' - insertion of the hand into the rectum or dilatation of the anus with sexual aids.
References

  1. ^ Altomare, Donato F.; Pucciani, Filippo (2007). Rectal Prolapse: Diagnosis and Clinical Management. Springer. p. 12. ISBN 978-88-470-0683-6.
  2. ^ Altomare, Pucciani (2007) p.14
  3. ^ Altomare, Pucciani (2007) p.44-45
  4. ^ Diehl, Anna (2005). Advanced therapy in gastroenterology and liver disease. PMPH-USA. p. 521. ISBN 978-1-55009-248-6.
  5. ^ Turell, R. (Apr 1974). "Sexual problems as seen by proctologist.". N Y State J Med 74 (4): 697–8. PMID 4523440.
  6. ^ Essential Revision Notes in Surgery for Medical Students By Irfan Halim; p139
  7. ^ Hampton, BS. (Jan 2009). "Pelvic organ prolapse.". Med Health R I 92 (1): 5–9. PMID 19248418.
  8. ^ "Trichuris Trichiura". Whipworm. Parasites In Humans.
  9. ^ http://www.webmd.com/digestive-disor...tment-overview
  10. ^ a b Tjandra, Joe Janwar; Clunie, Gordon J. A.; Kaye, Andrew H.; Smith, Julian (2006). Textbook of surgery. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 247. ISBN 978-1-4051-2627-4.
  11. ^ Houry, S.; Lechaux, J. P.; Huguier, M.; Molkhou, J. M. (1987). "Treatment of rectal prolapse by Delorme's operation". International Journal of Colorectal Disease 2 (3): 149–152. DOI:10.1007/BF01647997. PMID 3309100. edit
  12. ^ Heemskerk J, de Hoog DE, van Gemert WG, Baeten CG, Greve JW, Bouvy ND (November 2007). "Robot-assisted vs. conventional laparoscopic rectopexy for rectal prolapse: a comparative study on costs and time". Dis. Colon Rectum 50 (11): 1825–30. DOI:10.1007/s10350-007-9017-2. PMC 2071956. PMID 17690936.
  13. ^ "Professional Guide to Diseases". Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2008. p. 294. ISBN 978-0-7817-7899-2.
  14. ^ Saleem MM, Al-Momani H (2006). "Acute scrotum as a complication of Thiersch operation for rectal prolapse in a child". BMC Surg 6: 19. DOI:10.1186/1471-2482-6-19. PMC 1785387. PMID 17194301.

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Old 06-15-2012, 06:26 PM   #5
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Hemorrhoid

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Hemorrhoids Classification and external resources
Schematic demonstrating the anatomy of hemorrhoids ICD-10 I84 ICD-9 455 DiseasesDB 10036 MedlinePlus 000292 eMedicine med/2821 emerg/242 MeSH D006484 Hemorrhoids (US English) or haemorrhoids (UK /ˈhɛmərɔɪdz/), are vascular structures in the anal canal which help with stool control.[1][2] They become pathological or piles[3] when swollen or inflamed. In their physiological state, they act as a cushion composed of arterio-venous channels and connective tissue that aid the passage of stool. The symptoms of pathological hemorrhoids depend on the type present. Internal hemorrhoids usually present with painless rectal bleeding while external hemorrhoids present with pain in the area of the anus.
Recommended treatment consists of increasing fiber intake, oral fluids to maintain hydration, NSAID analgesics, sitz baths, and rest. Surgery is reserved for those who fail to improve following these measures.[4]
Contents


Classification

There are two types of hemorrhoids, external and internal, which are differentiated via their position with respect to the dentate line.[3]
External

External hemorrhoids are those that occur below the dentate line. They may actually be concealed from view however. Specifically, they are varicosities of the veins draining the territory of the inferior rectal arteries, which are branches of the internal pudendal artery. They are sometimes painful, and often accompanied by swelling and irritation. Itching, although often thought to be a symptom of external hemorrhoids, is more commonly due to skin irritation. The skin irritation may be brought about by the inflammation of the external hemorrhoid which in turn leads to a barely noticeable watery discharge and skin irritation. External hemorrhoids are prone to thrombosis: if the vein ruptures and/or a blood clot develops, the hemorrhoid becomes a thrombosed hemorrhoid.[5]
Internal

Internal hemorrhoids are those that occur above the dentate line. Specifically, they are varicosities of veins draining the territory of branches of the superior rectal arteries. As this area lacks pain receptors, internal hemorrhoids are usually not painful and most people are not aware that they have them. Internal hemorrhoids, however, may bleed when irritated. Untreated internal hemorrhoids can lead to two severe forms of hemorrhoids: prolapsed and strangulated hemorrhoids. Prolapsed hemorrhoids are internal hemorrhoids that are so distended that they are pushed outside the anus. If the anal sphincter muscle goes into spasm and traps a prolapsed hemorrhoid outside the anal opening, the supply of blood is cut off, and the hemorrhoid becomes a strangulated hemorrhoid.
Internal hemorrhoids can be further graded by the degree of prolapse.[3][6]
  • Grade I: No prolapse.
  • Grade II: Prolapse upon defecation but spontaneously reduce.
  • Grade III: Prolapse upon defecation and must be manually reduced.
  • Grade IV: Prolapsed and cannot be manually reduced.


  • Hemorrhoids grade 1



  • Hemorrhoids grade 2



  • Hemorrhoids grade 3



  • Hemorrhoids grade 4



  • Endoscopic view of grade 1 hemorrhoids in anal direction of view



  • Hemorrhoids grade 2



  • Hemorrhoids grade 3



  • Hemorrhoids grade 4

Signs and symptoms


External hemorrhoids


Hemorrhoids are usually present with itching, rectal pain, and rectal bleeding.[2] Other symptoms include mucous discharge and fecal incontinence.[7] In most cases, symptoms will resolve within a few days. External hemorrhoids are painful, while internal hemorrhoids usually are not unless they become thrombosed or necrotic.[2][3]
The most common symptom of internal hemorrhoids is bright red blood covering the stool, a condition known as hematochezia, on toilet paper, or in the toilet bowl.[2] They may protrude through the anus. Symptoms of external hemorrhoids include painful swelling and a lump around the anus.
Causes

A number of factors may lead to the formations of hemorrhoids including irregular bowel habits (constipation or diarrhea), exercise, nutrition (low-fiber diet), increased intra-abdominal pressure (prolonged straining), pregnancy, genetics, absence of valves within the hemorrhoidal veins, and aging.[3]
Other factors that can increase the rectal vein pressure resulting in hemorrhoids include obesity and sitting for long periods of time.[8]
During pregnancy, pressure from the fetus on the abdomen and hormonal changes cause the hemorrhoidal vessels to enlarge. Delivery also leads to increased intra-abdominal pressures.[9][10] Surgical treatment is rarely needed, as symptoms usually resolve post delivery.[3]
Pathophysiology

See also: Hemorrhoidal plexus
Hemorrhoid cushions are a part of normal human anatomy and only become a pathological disease when they experience abnormal changes. There are three cushions present in the normal anal canal.[3]
They are important for continence, contributing to at rest 15–20% of anal closure pressure and act to protect the anal sphincter muscles during the passage of stool.[2]
Prevention

The best way to prevent hemorrhoids is to keep stools soft so they pass easily, thus decreasing pressure and straining, and to empty bowels as soon as possible after the urge occurs. Exercise, including walking, and increased fiber in the diet help reduce constipation and straining by producing stools that are softer and easier to pass.[11] Spending less time attempting to defecate and avoiding reading while on the toilet have been recommended.[3]
Diagnosis

A visual examination of the anus and surrounding area may be able to diagnose external or prolapsed hemorrhoids. A rectal exam may be performed to detect possible rectal tumors, polyps, an enlarged prostate, or abscesses. This examination may not be possible without appropriate sedation due to pain, although most internal hemorrhoids are not present with pain.[3]
Visual confirmation of internal hemorrhoids is via anoscopy or proctoscopy. This device is basically a hollow tube with a light attached at one end that allows one to see the internal hemorrhoids, as well as possible polyps in the rectum.
Differential

Many anorectal problems, including fissures, fistulae, abscesses, colorectal cancer, rectal varices and itching have similar symptoms and may be incorrectly referred to as hemorrhoids.[3]
Treatments


11th century English miniature. On the right is an operation to remove hemorrhoids.


Conservative treatment typically consists of increasing dietary fiber, oral fluids to maintain hydration, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID)s, sitz baths, and rest.[3] Increased fiber intake has been shown to improve outcomes,[12] and may be achieved by dietary alterations or the consumption of fiber supplements.[3][12]
While many topical agents and suppositories are available for the treatment of hemorrhoids, there is little evidence to support their use.[3] Steroid containing agents should not be used for more than 14 days as they may cause thinning of the skin.[3] Skin protectants such as petroleum jelly or zinc oxide cream may potentially reduce injury and itching.[13]
Procedures

  • Rubber band ligation is a procedure in which elastic bands are applied onto an internal hemorrhoid at least 1 cm above the dentate line to cut off its blood supply. Within 5–7 days, the withered hemorrhoid falls off. If the band is placed too close to the dentate line, intense pain results immediately afterwards.[3] Cure rate has been found to be about 87%.[3]
  • Sclerotherapy involves the injection of a sclerosing agent, such as phenol, into the hemorrhoid. This causes the vein walls to collapse and the hemorrhoids to shrivel up. The success rate four years after treatment is 70%.[3]
  • A number of cauterization methods have been shown to be effective for hemorrhoids, but are usually only used when other methods fail. This can be done using electrocautery, infrared radiation, laser surgery,[3] or cryosurgery.[14]
A number of surgical techniques may be used if conservative medical management fails. All are associated with some degree of complications including urinary retention, due to the close proximity to the rectum of the nerves that supply the bladder, bleeding, infection, and anal strictures.[3]
  • Hemorrhoidectomy is a surgical excision of the hemorrhoid used primarily only in severe cases.[3] It is associated with significant post-operative pain and usually requires 2–4 weeks for recovery.[3]
  • Doppler-guided, transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization is a minimally invasive treatment using an ultrasound doppler to accurately locate the arterial blood inflow. These arteries are then "tied off" and the prolapsed tissue is sutured back to its normal position. It has a slightly higher recurrence rate, but fewer complications compared to a hemorrhoidectomy.[3]
  • Stapled hemorrhoidectomy, or, more properly, stapled hemorrhoidopexy, is a procedure that involves the resection (removal) of much of the abnormally enlarged hemorrhoidal tissue, followed by a repositioning of the remaining hemorrhoidal tissue back to its normal anatomic position. It is generally less painful than complete removal of hemorrhoids, and is associated with faster healing compared to a hemorrhoidectomy.[3]
Epidemiology

Symptomatic hemorrhoids affect at least 50% of the American population at some time during their lives, with around 5% of the population suffering at any given time, and both sexes experiencing the same incidence of the condition.[3][15] They are more common in Caucasians.[16]
Etymology

First attested in English 1398, the word hemmorrhoid derives from the Old French "emorroides", from Latin "hæmorrhoida -ae",[17] in turn from the Greek "αἱμορροΐς" (haimorrhois), "liable to discharge blood", from "αἷμα" (haima), "blood"[18] + "ῥόος" (rhoos), "stream, flow, current",[19] itself from "ῥέω" (rheo), "to flow, to stream".[20]
Notable cases

Hall-of-Fame baseball player George Brett was removed from a game in the 1980 World Series due to hemorrhoid pain. After undergoing minor surgery, Brett returned to play in the next game, quipping "...my problems are all behind me."[21] Brett underwent further hemorrhoid surgery the following spring.[22]
Conservative political commentator Glenn Beck underwent surgery for hemorrhoids, subsequently describing his unpleasant experience in a widely viewed 2008 YouTube video.[23]
References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Hemorrhoids
  1. ^ Chen, Herbert (2010). Illustrative Handbook of General Surgery. Berlin: Springer. pp. 217. ISBN 1-84882-088-7.
  2. ^ a b c d e Schubert, MC; Sridhar, S; Schade, RR; Wexner, SD (July 2009). "What every gastroenterologist needs to know about common anorectal disorders". World J Gastroenterol 15 (26): 3201–9. DOI:10.3748/wjg.15.3201. ISSN 1007-9327. PMC 2710774. PMID 19598294.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Lorenzo-Rivero, S (August 2009). "Hemorrhoids: diagnosis and current management". Am Surg 75 (8): 635–42. PMID 19725283.
  4. ^ Hoffman, Gary, M.D. (January 2010). "Hemorrhoids – PPH (Procedure For Prolapse And Hemorrhoids)". Los Angeles Colon & Rectal Surgical Associates. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
  5. ^ E. Gojlan, Pathology, 2nd ed. Mosby Elsevier, Rapid Review series.
  6. ^ Banov Jr, L; Knoepp Jr, LF; Erdman, LH; Alia, RT (1985). "Management of hemorrhoidal disease". J S C Med Assoc 81 (7): 398–401. PMID 3861909.
  7. ^ Azimuddin, edited by Indru Khubchandani, Nina Paonessa, Khawaja (2009). Surgical treatment of hemorrhoids (2nd ed. ed.). New York: Springer. pp. 21. ISBN 978-1-84800-313-2.
  8. ^ Mayo Clinic staff (18 March 2010). "Hemorrhoids". MayoClinic. Retrieved 18 March 2010.
  9. ^ National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (November 2004). "Hemorrhoids". National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), NIH. Retrieved 18 March 2010.
  10. ^ "Hemorrhoids". March of Dimes. August 2009. Retrieved 18 March 2010.
  11. ^ "Hemorrhoids".
  12. ^ a b Alonso-Coello, P.; Guyatt, G. H.; Heels-Ansdell, D.; Johanson, J. F.; Lopez-Yarto, M.; Mills, E.; Zhuo, Q.; Alonso-Coello, Pablo (2005). Alonso-Coello, Pablo. ed. "Laxatives for the treatment of hemorrhoids". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD004649. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD004649.pub2. PMID 16235372.
  13. ^ http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/h...ds-medications
  14. ^ MacLeod, JH (1982). "In defense of cryotherapy for hemorrhoids. A modified method". Dis Colon Rectum 25 (4): 332–5. DOI:10.1007/BF02553608. PMID 6979469.
  15. ^ "Hemorrhoids". American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons.
  16. ^ Christian Lynge, Dana; Weiss, Barry D.. 20 Common Problems: Surgical Problems And Procedures In Primary Care. McGraw-Hill Professional. pp. 114. ISBN 978-0-07-136002-9.
  17. ^ hæmorrhoida, Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, on Perseus Digital Library
  18. ^ αἷμα, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  19. ^ ῥόος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  20. ^ ῥέω, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  21. ^ Dick Kaegel (March 5, 2009). "Memories fill Kauffman Stadium". Major League Baseball.
  22. ^ "Brett in Hospital for Surgery". The New York Times. Associated Press. March 1, 1981.
  23. ^ http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/PainManage...1#.TtJWNrL8wtw



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Old 06-15-2012, 06:28 PM   #6
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Hemorrhoid

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Hemorrhoids Classification and external resources
Schematic demonstrating the anatomy of hemorrhoids ICD-10 I84 ICD-9 455 DiseasesDB 10036 MedlinePlus 000292 eMedicine med/2821 emerg/242 MeSH D006484 Hemorrhoids (US English) or haemorrhoids (UK /ˈhɛmərɔɪdz/), are vascular structures in the anal canal which help with stool control.[1][2] They become pathological or piles[3] when swollen or inflamed. In their physiological state, they act as a cushion composed of arterio-venous channels and connective tissue that aid the passage of stool. The symptoms of pathological hemorrhoids depend on the type present. Internal hemorrhoids usually present with painless rectal bleeding while external hemorrhoids present with pain in the area of the anus.
Recommended treatment consists of increasing fiber intake, oral fluids to maintain hydration, NSAID analgesics, sitz baths, and rest. Surgery is reserved for those who fail to improve following these measures.[4]
Contents


Classification

There are two types of hemorrhoids, external and internal, which are differentiated via their position with respect to the dentate line.[3]
External

External hemorrhoids are those that occur below the dentate line. They may actually be concealed from view however. Specifically, they are varicosities of the veins draining the territory of the inferior rectal arteries, which are branches of the internal pudendal artery. They are sometimes painful, and often accompanied by swelling and irritation. Itching, although often thought to be a symptom of external hemorrhoids, is more commonly due to skin irritation. The skin irritation may be brought about by the inflammation of the external hemorrhoid which in turn leads to a barely noticeable watery discharge and skin irritation. External hemorrhoids are prone to thrombosis: if the vein ruptures and/or a blood clot develops, the hemorrhoid becomes a thrombosed hemorrhoid.[5]
Internal

Internal hemorrhoids are those that occur above the dentate line. Specifically, they are varicosities of veins draining the territory of branches of the superior rectal arteries. As this area lacks pain receptors, internal hemorrhoids are usually not painful and most people are not aware that they have them. Internal hemorrhoids, however, may bleed when irritated. Untreated internal hemorrhoids can lead to two severe forms of hemorrhoids: prolapsed and strangulated hemorrhoids. Prolapsed hemorrhoids are internal hemorrhoids that are so distended that they are pushed outside the anus. If the anal sphincter muscle goes into spasm and traps a prolapsed hemorrhoid outside the anal opening, the supply of blood is cut off, and the hemorrhoid becomes a strangulated hemorrhoid.
Internal hemorrhoids can be further graded by the degree of prolapse.[3][6]
  • Grade I: No prolapse.
  • Grade II: Prolapse upon defecation but spontaneously reduce.
  • Grade III: Prolapse upon defecation and must be manually reduced.
  • Grade IV: Prolapsed and cannot be manually reduced.


  • Hemorrhoids grade 1


  • Hemorrhoids grade 2


  • Hemorrhoids grade 3


  • Hemorrhoids grade 4


  • Endoscopic view of grade 1 hemorrhoids in anal direction of view


  • Hemorrhoids grade 2


  • Hemorrhoids grade 3


  • Hemorrhoids grade 4
Signs and symptoms


External hemorrhoids


Hemorrhoids are usually present with itching, rectal pain, and rectal bleeding.[2] Other symptoms include mucous discharge and fecal incontinence.[7] In most cases, symptoms will resolve within a few days. External hemorrhoids are painful, while internal hemorrhoids usually are not unless they become thrombosed or necrotic.[2][3]
The most common symptom of internal hemorrhoids is bright red blood covering the stool, a condition known as hematochezia, on toilet paper, or in the toilet bowl.[2] They may protrude through the anus. Symptoms of external hemorrhoids include painful swelling and a lump around the anus.
Causes

A number of factors may lead to the formations of hemorrhoids including irregular bowel habits (constipation or diarrhea), exercise, nutrition (low-fiber diet), increased intra-abdominal pressure (prolonged straining), pregnancy, genetics, absence of valves within the hemorrhoidal veins, and aging.[3]
Other factors that can increase the rectal vein pressure resulting in hemorrhoids include obesity and sitting for long periods of time.[8]
During pregnancy, pressure from the fetus on the abdomen and hormonal changes cause the hemorrhoidal vessels to enlarge. Delivery also leads to increased intra-abdominal pressures.[9][10] Surgical treatment is rarely needed, as symptoms usually resolve post delivery.[3]
Pathophysiology

See also: Hemorrhoidal plexus
Hemorrhoid cushions are a part of normal human anatomy and only become a pathological disease when they experience abnormal changes. There are three cushions present in the normal anal canal.[3]
They are important for continence, contributing to at rest 15–20% of anal closure pressure and act to protect the anal sphincter muscles during the passage of stool.[2]
Prevention

The best way to prevent hemorrhoids is to keep stools soft so they pass easily, thus decreasing pressure and straining, and to empty bowels as soon as possible after the urge occurs. Exercise, including walking, and increased fiber in the diet help reduce constipation and straining by producing stools that are softer and easier to pass.[11] Spending less time attempting to defecate and avoiding reading while on the toilet have been recommended.[3]
Diagnosis

A visual examination of the anus and surrounding area may be able to diagnose external or prolapsed hemorrhoids. A rectal exam may be performed to detect possible rectal tumors, polyps, an enlarged prostate, or abscesses. This examination may not be possible without appropriate sedation due to pain, although most internal hemorrhoids are not present with pain.[3]
Visual confirmation of internal hemorrhoids is via anoscopy or proctoscopy. This device is basically a hollow tube with a light attached at one end that allows one to see the internal hemorrhoids, as well as possible polyps in the rectum.
Differential

Many anorectal problems, including fissures, fistulae, abscesses, colorectal cancer, rectal varices and itching have similar symptoms and may be incorrectly referred to as hemorrhoids.[3]
Treatments


11th century English miniature. On the right is an operation to remove hemorrhoids.


Conservative treatment typically consists of increasing dietary fiber, oral fluids to maintain hydration, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID)s, sitz baths, and rest.[3] Increased fiber intake has been shown to improve outcomes,[12] and may be achieved by dietary alterations or the consumption of fiber supplements.[3][12]
While many topical agents and suppositories are available for the treatment of hemorrhoids, there is little evidence to support their use.[3] Steroid containing agents should not be used for more than 14 days as they may cause thinning of the skin.[3] Skin protectants such as petroleum jelly or zinc oxide cream may potentially reduce injury and itching.[13]
Procedures

  • Rubber band ligation is a procedure in which elastic bands are applied onto an internal hemorrhoid at least 1 cm above the dentate line to cut off its blood supply. Within 5–7 days, the withered hemorrhoid falls off. If the band is placed too close to the dentate line, intense pain results immediately afterwards.[3] Cure rate has been found to be about 87%.[3]
  • Sclerotherapy involves the injection of a sclerosing agent, such as phenol, into the hemorrhoid. This causes the vein walls to collapse and the hemorrhoids to shrivel up. The success rate four years after treatment is 70%.[3]
  • A number of cauterization methods have been shown to be effective for hemorrhoids, but are usually only used when other methods fail. This can be done using electrocautery, infrared radiation, laser surgery,[3] or cryosurgery.[14]
A number of surgical techniques may be used if conservative medical management fails. All are associated with some degree of complications including urinary retention, due to the close proximity to the rectum of the nerves that supply the bladder, bleeding, infection, and anal strictures.[3]
  • Hemorrhoidectomy is a surgical excision of the hemorrhoid used primarily only in severe cases.[3] It is associated with significant post-operative pain and usually requires 2–4 weeks for recovery.[3]
  • Doppler-guided, transanal hemorrhoidal dearterialization is a minimally invasive treatment using an ultrasound doppler to accurately locate the arterial blood inflow. These arteries are then "tied off" and the prolapsed tissue is sutured back to its normal position. It has a slightly higher recurrence rate, but fewer complications compared to a hemorrhoidectomy.[3]
  • Stapled hemorrhoidectomy, or, more properly, stapled hemorrhoidopexy, is a procedure that involves the resection (removal) of much of the abnormally enlarged hemorrhoidal tissue, followed by a repositioning of the remaining hemorrhoidal tissue back to its normal anatomic position. It is generally less painful than complete removal of hemorrhoids, and is associated with faster healing compared to a hemorrhoidectomy.[3]
Epidemiology

Symptomatic hemorrhoids affect at least 50% of the American population at some time during their lives, with around 5% of the population suffering at any given time, and both sexes experiencing the same incidence of the condition.[3][15] They are more common in Caucasians.[16]
Etymology

First attested in English 1398, the word hemmorrhoid derives from the Old French "emorroides", from Latin "hæmorrhoida -ae",[17] in turn from the Greek "αἱμορροΐς" (haimorrhois), "liable to discharge blood", from "αἷμα" (haima), "blood"[18] + "ῥόος" (rhoos), "stream, flow, current",[19] itself from "ῥέω" (rheo), "to flow, to stream".[20]
Notable cases

Hall-of-Fame baseball player George Brett was removed from a game in the 1980 World Series due to hemorrhoid pain. After undergoing minor surgery, Brett returned to play in the next game, quipping "...my problems are all behind me."[21] Brett underwent further hemorrhoid surgery the following spring.[22]
Conservative political commentator Glenn Beck underwent surgery for hemorrhoids, subsequently describing his unpleasant experience in a widely viewed 2008 YouTube video.[23]
References

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Hemorrhoids
  1. ^ Chen, Herbert (2010). Illustrative Handbook of General Surgery. Berlin: Springer. pp. 217. ISBN 1-84882-088-7.
  2. ^ a b c d e Schubert, MC; Sridhar, S; Schade, RR; Wexner, SD (July 2009). "What every gastroenterologist needs to know about common anorectal disorders". World J Gastroenterol 15 (26): 3201–9. DOI:10.3748/wjg.15.3201. ISSN 1007-9327. PMC 2710774. PMID 19598294.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x Lorenzo-Rivero, S (August 2009). "Hemorrhoids: diagnosis and current management". Am Surg 75 (8): 635–42. PMID 19725283.
  4. ^ Hoffman, Gary, M.D. (January 2010). "Hemorrhoids – PPH (Procedure For Prolapse And Hemorrhoids)". Los Angeles Colon & Rectal Surgical Associates. Retrieved 17 November 2011.
  5. ^ E. Gojlan, Pathology, 2nd ed. Mosby Elsevier, Rapid Review series.
  6. ^ Banov Jr, L; Knoepp Jr, LF; Erdman, LH; Alia, RT (1985). "Management of hemorrhoidal disease". J S C Med Assoc 81 (7): 398–401. PMID 3861909.
  7. ^ Azimuddin, edited by Indru Khubchandani, Nina Paonessa, Khawaja (2009). Surgical treatment of hemorrhoids (2nd ed. ed.). New York: Springer. pp. 21. ISBN 978-1-84800-313-2.
  8. ^ Mayo Clinic staff (18 March 2010). "Hemorrhoids". MayoClinic. Retrieved 18 March 2010.
  9. ^ National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse (November 2004). "Hemorrhoids". National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK), NIH. Retrieved 18 March 2010.
  10. ^ "Hemorrhoids". March of Dimes. August 2009. Retrieved 18 March 2010.
  11. ^ "Hemorrhoids".
  12. ^ a b Alonso-Coello, P.; Guyatt, G. H.; Heels-Ansdell, D.; Johanson, J. F.; Lopez-Yarto, M.; Mills, E.; Zhuo, Q.; Alonso-Coello, Pablo (2005). Alonso-Coello, Pablo. ed. "Laxatives for the treatment of hemorrhoids". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (4): CD004649. DOI:10.1002/14651858.CD004649.pub2. PMID 16235372.
  13. ^ http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/h...ds-medications
  14. ^ MacLeod, JH (1982). "In defense of cryotherapy for hemorrhoids. A modified method". Dis Colon Rectum 25 (4): 332–5. DOI:10.1007/BF02553608. PMID 6979469.
  15. ^ "Hemorrhoids". American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons.
  16. ^ Christian Lynge, Dana; Weiss, Barry D.. 20 Common Problems: Surgical Problems And Procedures In Primary Care. McGraw-Hill Professional. pp. 114. ISBN 978-0-07-136002-9.
  17. ^ hæmorrhoida, Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary, on Perseus Digital Library
  18. ^ αἷμα, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  19. ^ ῥόος, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  20. ^ ῥέω, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus Digital Library
  21. ^ Dick Kaegel (March 5, 2009). "Memories fill Kauffman Stadium". Major League Baseball.
  22. ^ "Brett in Hospital for Surgery". The New York Times. Associated Press. March 1, 1981.
  23. ^ http://abcnews.go.com/GMA/PainManage...1#.TtJWNrL8wtw



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Old 06-15-2012, 06:31 PM   #7
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Felching

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Felching is a sexual practice involving the act of orally sucking semen out of the vagina or anus of one's partner.
Contents


Earliest appearance of the term

According to the 2003 draft entry for "felch" in the Oxford English Dictionary, the earliest occurrence of the word in print appears to have been in The Argot of the Homosexual Subculture by Ronald A. Farrell in 1972.[1]
“ FELTCH [sic] (v.): To use one's mouth or tongue on the anus of his partner; analingus or male cunnilingus (syn. RIM). ” The word was subsequently used in the work of Zap Comix underground cartoonists, Robert Crumb, Rick Griffin, Victor Moscoso, S. Clay Wilson, "Spain" Rodriguez, Robert Williams in 1975. It was also used in 1979 by Larry Kramer in his novel Faggots, where he defined it as sucking the ejaculate from the anus after intercourse.[2] It first appeared in scientific literature in 2005, when psychoanalyst Mark Blechner discussed felching as an example of the crossover between disgust and sexual excitement.[3]
The Zap collective published two sexually themed comic books, Snatch and Jiz, and decided to continue pushing the envelope by publishing a book named Felch. According to Williams:
“ OK, since we didn’t get in any trouble with Snatch and Jiz, and a couple of these other comics, I was partying one night with Crumb, Wilson and these other guys. And Wilson mentioned to me, he says, "I was talking to Ken Weaver and he had this real interesting word." I said what, "What is it?" "A word called 'felch.'" I said, "What does that mean?" He said, "It is a real old term and it means orally withdrawing semen from someone’s lower digestive tract after having anal sex." I said, "There’s a word for something like that?" That’s incredible that not only is there a word like that, but it has a provenance. Hell yeah, we’re going to do a felch comic. So I talked to Crumb, "Yeah, we’re going to do a felch comic." ” Crumb's contribution was a parody of an editorial cartoon featuring John Q. Public felching "Mother Nature/Lady Liberty" after she has had anal sex with a Pravda-style cartoon capitalist.[4] Williams produced a felching-themed solo work in 1975 titled The Nectar of Satan.[5]
In Popular Culture

The term, probably inadvertently, turned up often on All in the Family. A common gag had Archie always mispronouncing his minister's name as the "Reverend Fletcher" and being corrected, "Feltcher," to which Archie's answer would invariably be "whatever." The earliest instance of this was in the show's first season in 1971.
See also

Sexuality portal
References

  1. ^ Farrell, Ronald A. (March 1972). "The Argot of the Homosexual Subculture". Anthropological Linguistics (The Trustees of Indiana University) 14 (3): 97–109. ISSN 0003-5483. JSTOR 30029496.
  2. ^ Kramer, L. (1979) Faggots. New York: Grove Press.
  3. ^ Blechner, M. (2005) "Disgust, desire, and fascination: Psychoanalytic, cultural, historical, and neuroscientific perspectives". Studies in Gender and Sexuality, 6:33-45.
  4. ^ Robert Crumb: The Complete Crumb Comics, Volume 10. Fantagraphics Books, 1993. ISBN 1-56097-137-1. Reproduction of cartoon from Felch Cumix 1975.
  5. ^ Robert Williams. "Robert Williams, 'Underground(s)'". ImageTexT: Interdisciplinary Comics Studies. Retrieved 2006-12-02.

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Snowballing (sexual practice)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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Snowballing


Snowballing or snowdropping[1] is the human sexual practice in which one takes someone else's semen into their mouth and then passes it to the mouth of the other (another), usually through kissing.[2][3][4][5]
The term was originally used only by homosexuals.[1] Researchers who surveyed over 1200 gay or bisexual men at New York LGBT community events in 2004 found that around 20% said they had one or more times engaged in snowballing.[6] In heterosexual couples, a woman who has performed fellatio may afterwards return the semen to her partner's mouth, mixed with saliva; the couple may then exchange the fluid several times, causing its volume to increase (hence "snowballing").[4][5] Many heterosexual men are uncomfortable with the practice.[4][5]
Use of the term in popular culture

See also

Sexuality portal
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Snowballing (sex) References

  1. ^ a b Eric Partridge (2007). Tom Dalzell, Terry Victor. ed. The concise new Partridge dictionary of slang and unconventional English. Routledge. p. 600. ISBN 0-415-21259-6, 9780415212595.
  2. ^ a b Dalzell, Tom; Terry Victor (eds.) (2006). The New Partridge Dictionary of Slang and Unconventional English. Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge. pp. 1807. ISBN 0-415-25938-X. Retrieved December 7, 2008.p
  3. ^ a b Marx, Eve (2004). "Answers to It's all how you say it: sexual slang". What's Your Sexual IQ?. New York: Citadel Press. pp. 90. ISBN 0-8065-2610-6. Retrieved December 7, 2008.
  4. ^ a b c Savage, Dan (April 24, 2003). "Snowballing". Savage Love. Retrieved December 7, 2008.
  5. ^ a b c Savage, Dan (October 7, 1999). "Urine Love". Savage Love. Retrieved December 7, 2008.
  6. ^ Grov, Christian; Jeffrey T. Parsons, and David S. Bimbi (August 2010). "Sexual Compulsivity and Sexual Risk in Gay and Bisexual Men". Archives of Sexual Behavior (Springer Netherlands) 39 (4): 940–9. DOI:10.1007/s10508-009-9483-9. ISSN 1573-2800. PMC 2890042. PMID 19308715.

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Gokkun

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A woman holds a beaker filled with semen to her mouth in order to swallow it


Gokkun (ゴックン?) is a Japanese term for a sexual activity in which a woman consumes the semen of one or more men, usually from some kind of container[1]. Commonly-used containers in this genre include cups, beakers, bowls, and wine or cocktail glasses. The vast majority of these scenarios involve the semen of multiple men. As the genre's producers attempt to outdo one another, the number of men participating has exceeded 200 in recent Japanese films and 140 in recent American films.[2] Less frequently, the scenes involve a large container of semen from a single male who has, over time, stored up a large volume for this purpose, generally by freezing it.[3]
‘Gokkun’ can also refer to the sexual act of swallowing semen after performing fellatio[4] or participating in a bukkake.[1]
The word "gokkun" is an onomatopoeia, which translates into English as "gulp", the sound made by swallowing.[5]
See also

References

  1. ^ a b Dufour, Dany-Robert (2009). La cité perverse : libéralisme et pornographie. Bibliothèque Médiations. Éditions Denoël. p. 12. ISBN 2-207-26120-4.
  2. ^ "Jim Powers Begins Production on American Gokkun", Adult Video News (2006).
  3. ^ FAQ: Amateur Gokkun, Extreme Boards.
  4. ^ Thomas, G. M. (2004). Extremes: contradictions in contemporary Japan. Kaichan. p. 177. ISBN 0-9546789-0-7.
  5. ^ Wilks, J. "The (Almost) Complete Japanzine Dictionary of Japan Sex". Seekjapan. Retrieved 2010-05-09.

External links

  • Media related to Gokkun at Wikimedia Commons


This sexuality-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.
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btw that girl looks as if shes got gr8 perky tits. props 4 the picture
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are you an attention seeking 3 year old girl in a 'grown' mans body??

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Old 06-15-2012, 06:54 PM   #10
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btw that girl looks as if shes got gr8 perky tits. props 4 the picture

your welcome. i was goingto post more pics and info,, but im sure it will get hated on.. the pics and research are available here https://www.facebook.com/media/set/?...3884122&type=1
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i was goingto post more pics and info,, but im sure it will get hated on..
Why don't you adopt the same mentality in the rest of your posts you blubbering rodent?
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Old 06-15-2012, 07:19 PM   #12
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Soul Controller Iron Lungs (Fists of Legend)Soul Controller Iron Lungs (Fists of Legend)Soul Controller Iron Lungs (Fists of Legend)Soul Controller Iron Lungs (Fists of Legend)Soul Controller Iron Lungs (Fists of Legend)Soul Controller Iron Lungs (Fists of Legend)Soul Controller Iron Lungs (Fists of Legend)Soul Controller Iron Lungs (Fists of Legend)Soul Controller Iron Lungs (Fists of Legend)Soul Controller Iron Lungs (Fists of Legend)Soul Controller Iron Lungs (Fists of Legend)
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cos im sure everyone on wu corp isnt as stupid as yourself, and that people actually care about themselves, so hence' prevention is the best medicine..

but you carry on.. enjoy your fast food(thats very high in nutrients), and everyday products whose chemicals are well known for causing cancers

keep on with your stupid ass posts, it provides lulz , If you actually knew what reiki was.. then you would know how stupid your post was,

but alas, why learn about things (even off of wikipedia) when you can flood with junk, that shows your childish maturity
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my own conscious is beyond universal, there is no separation only fagments of experience making sense of physical material existence on the path back to the source of all.

LulZ KillZ Phear....

http://thepiratenetwork.org

"THE ALL is MIND; The Universe is Mental." — The Kybalion.



Last edited by Soul Controller; 06-16-2012 at 05:09 AM.
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