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Old 02-16-2013, 12:51 AM   #1
CEITEDMOFO
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Default MESSAGE FOR ANON & SOUL COnTROLLeR PT 2

This post is not written to be smooth, nor is it written to be fluent, but written as a jagged pattern of sentences without grammarical structure to riddle the mind, to make one think on a conscious and a subliminal level. It is a mere seed of thought, but a seed can grow.

I am going to be forthright. Today on MSN they are promoting the Jewish UFO videos at en.video.sympatico.ca...

I could care less if some individual claims it is all a hoax. I could care less if the event is a hoax. I reviewed the videos and tend to disagree it is a hoax, and this is why? Even if the videos are hoaxes, the intentions behind them are not a hoax. The videos clearly show an old religious term, “an angel of light descending on the Dome of the Rock”. Clearly the images are clear, and in fact, they are followed by the unexpected abandoned male child shortly thereafter in a highly secured monument. Listen up, hoax or not, they are slowly indoctrinating the world that it happened for future fairytales.

The fact remains it is being promoted on MSN, and the fact remains that propaganda always begins quietly. Even if it was a hoax, even it this was all set up, the intention of using this propaganda to filter the belief that a male born to nobody in Old Jerusalem found in the Dome of the Rock is a campaign to see the Jesus, the Mr. Christ himself is back being reborn in Old Jerusalem. Foresight is all required right now.

I will be blunt, there are millions of recorded video and snapshots of flying apparatus in the air for evidence, yet people see this and deny what their own eyes have seen. People make crazy claims that UFO's are from distant galaxy or the Pleidian spectrum of the universe, when in fact, THE PROOF IS THAT THEY ARE HERE!

Fact, the crop circles are photo or video evidences of flying saucers are taking place here, not in Mars, not in Pluto, not in another star cluster, BUT HERE. I will tell you why the government does not confirm this.

1) The fear of inter-stellar war is enough for the human mind, but the recognition they dwell amongst you in sophisticated cities below the soils in which humans inhabit would send the world into a panic.

2) Humans are natural born liars. They lie to family, to neighbours, to co-workers, to friends, to themselves! What do you expect from a group of natural born liars forming a body of government, media, law enforcement, churches or other? Lies!

UFOs are not new whatsoever, the Chariots of the Gods movie depicted long standing evidence they have been here since long before we know. The only problem with the movie is once again, the movie concocted a scenario where these beings that were here long ago might be from the star systems. The fact is…they are here!

They have always been here. Who do you think was talking to Moses and the Hebrews in the mountains? A talking cloud? Sure, and Barney the Dinosaur is real.

Let me be clear, you all deceive yourselves as you wait for natural born liars to confirm what your eyes see. You all need to realize, you are not alone in the universe, no more than you are alone here in the environment of the world you currently inhabit.

I want to be straight with you all, there is a more ominous confirmation of propaganda looming right now. One bigger than religious falsehoods, one bigger than the Jewish intention to resurrect Jesus the Christ in a make believe fairytale that he was brought by an angelic stork to the Dome of the Rock in February, 2011. It is in the fact that the second sun theory is also being promoted by mainstream media. Many people have taken pictures of a second sun over the last 2 years, many have reported what they believe is Nibiru, planet X or what have you. The second sun theory that the star Betelgeuse may explode is a false creative storyline, but…not a false alarm.

The divine angel of light descending to the Dome of the Rock is followed by a story of a baby male left in the Dome of the Rock, which is a prelude to propaganda for the return of Jesus standing atop the New Mount Zion in the New Heaven and Earth. This is a falsehood, yet the attempt for storytelling in the immediate future is not a false alarm.

Pictures and videos of flying machines above Phoenix in 1997 or otherwise in the millions to date may or may not be falsehoods, but they are not a false alarms. These are all very real alarms.

The “second sun by exploding star” propaganda is as unrealistic as astronauts landing on the moon. As if men were sent into a dark expanse where flying meteorites and asteroids could impact them in a second and blow them all up. As if a lander could be built to descend and re-ascend from the base of a moon when today there is no vehicle that can do it here on this planet. When the government or their syndicated media with permission to populate lies admits to a second sun theory, it is vital.

If Betelgeuse exploded, the whole world will see a second sun? C'mon! A second sun caused by an exploding star light years away? The whole area around the moon and the planets in this solar system would also be diminished by the overwhelming light, so why claim an explosion would look like a second sun?

Well, if a UFO is captured by a camera, the government debunks it with swamp gas reflections from Venus and other retarded lies. I will say this much, everyone here will have a drink on New Years Eve in 2012 and wake up with a hangover on January 1st, 2013. I am sorry to say the Mayan Calendar doomsday prediction is as real as Santa Claus. Just another human concept. Even the Gods like Zeus, Apollo or Jehovah are man made human concepts. Ever notice how God is supposed to endorse your actions as righteous while punishing your enemies? The easiest way to deceive a human is to speak to them. Everyone says nice things, and everyone writes nice poems, but deep down in the heart, they are self serving and self concerning hypocrites. Expect no truth from government, media, police, churches or commerce institutions, they are a formation of humans, and humans are arrogant and ignorant by nature.

Congratulations doomsdayers, you desire some phenomenal event to confirm life here is not so boring and there is something more, this time it is for real. Imagine a choir of singers at a church - now imagine billions all at once screaming all at once, "whoooaaaa-aahhhhhh". Still sound exciting?

If just one of you knew what I know, not believe, but what I know, you would be in absolute shock. I have every answer imaginable in the palm of my hands and I have to sit around listening to people who proudly boast opinions without true knowledge, speaking highly because they paid taxes and have a right to opinionize against a government. Listen up! Your governments are as real as your fictional Gods, they are a creation of the human mind and can only exist with the compliance of the masses. And compliance is best achieved through control by intimidation of loss or violence.

Wake up! Smell the airs that surround you. They are dark airs. Is it a coincidence the shadows between trees exist on the ground in daylight? Is it a coincidence the shadows exist on cement between buildings in daylight? Is it a coincidence that even during daylight if you close the drapes, the room gets dark? The air within this world is dark.

You exist in a prison where war and injustice has reigned supreme since the beginning, you are in a dungeon of deceit. The darkness is not from the universe, but the airs within the world. Wake up! You are now existing in a world that is hell, not a place of fire, brimstone and lava, but one of darkness. The airs here, like the soil that creates everything within is dark matter, just like the retina in the eyes of every animated living being within. The retina is as dark as the airs and soils that produced it allowing you to only perceive that which exists within. You are here, inside the world of darkness!

Welcome to the Dungeon of Deceit, the Prison of Sorrow where every man woman and child holds pain and sadness whether they are young or old, rich and poor. Is this your heaven? A place where as you read this, there are men raping little girls in the Middle East, there are children starving to death in Africa, there are people being beaten by police behind cement walls in your city as you read this! You are in hell, wake up or remain here indefinitely. Death is a human concept, there is only division and separation, as you exhale the last breath you also simultaneously inhale the new and you no longer gravitate in body to the soil that created you, but you gravitate above the body to the airs that suspend your spirit.

UFOs are not fictional, they are here! The campaign is Jerusalem is not fictional, nor a false alarm, but an inevitable falsehood of a returning Jesus in the guise of divine animation. The light of the universe that gives you perception for half a rotation of the world is the light from beyond, not within, so what do you really think will happen when the second sun appears and daylight is 24/7? In a home, a blast of sudden light is followed by a power outage of total darkness.

I will give you one hint. The world you inhabit is like a computer, and what happens when the environment of the computer gets overloaded with so many files, so many videos, numerous registries causing viruses? It gets reformatted and a new operating system is loaded and becomes the new environment. The Revelation prophecy of Jesus standing on Mount Zion in New Jerusalem, in the New Heaven and New Earth. The new operating system in a new environment with a transfer of old files is fulfilled.

Your landlords of this world that were once worshipped as Gods in a talking cloud commanding murders know what is about to happen. Do the tenants who walk the surface know? Ever wondered why a few hundred years ago people would see an advanced being ascend without gravity and assume they have wings like a night bat or why thousands of years ago they would see beings ascend and they thought they must have wings of a bird?

Truth is in what you see and what you hear, but the human mind deceives you by conjuring up myth's with the event that suit your own purposes. Remember the Heavens Gate leader? Sure he knew his stuff about Jesus telling people to desire to leave this hell, but in the end he claimed that he was Jesus back as Ti – and that God came back as an expression of Homer Simpson "Doh!". Smarts mixed with stupidity is inherent, just as eternal life of conscious awareness is inherent the milli-second the birth of spirit is fashioned, even before the fashioning of the mind and body from nothing more than an invisible cell began inside the womb of the human mother, inside the womb of this world, inside the womb of the universe. Like the bible, leave it to a human to manipulate murder as a sacrifice and then add an oxymoron that God sent the son to be killed to show love for humanity. A god that sends a son to be killed to express love? Only in the hell of this world can this fairytale be sold, yet it has been successfully sold to billions across the world. And those billions collectively outwish the few and the consciousness of this world that produces your imaginations will fulfill the agenda.

A dream can be a nightmare. What if the human race is born into a world that breeds arrogance, ignorance, hypocrisy and injustice. What if the world the human race perceives as a heaven is really a world of hell in disguise? What if the human race is a manifestation of demons in skin that hides the true image of a demon? What if you lived in a world that jails those who fight for justice on your behalf? What if as you read this there are military men raping a little 8 year old girl and laughing about her screaming and crying? What if these same men and women were killing civilians on other lands or abusing these human beings in barricaded tents? What if you lived in a world that honours the rapists and murderers with medals and the people of the land endorse their actions with support the effort of the troops stickers? What if you lived in a world where the most fortunate and most guilty were targeting the less fortunate and the less guilty? What if the world you inhabit has police beating and pulverizing people at will behind the scenes, and raping women behind cement walls while smiling into cameras exalting themselves as heroes? What if this world had people abusing seniors in senior homes, aids who attack mental patients with needles and mental torture, and social workers who take kids out of homes against their will and the kids were placed into homes and institutions such as churches where they are abused? What if the world had media who was designed by government to manipulate the audience with grand schemes that inflict the nation while honouring the leaders of oppressive indoctrinations? What if every human was capable of lying to one another, their friends and family and their co-workers and neighbours, and groups of liars were to become employed in group departments of government and media, continuing the lies?

What if humans naturally sought to expose lies and immorality of others while suppressing their own? What if humans created online websites that aim to combat censorship all while endorsing their own policies of censorship within under the guise of bans and deletions? What if all humanity is the source of all injustice? Or should we place the blame on birds and giraffes? Is it possible that all humans are self serving beings who attack one another over simple issues? Is this a world where people have a nemesis throughout the day where they need to battle another driver for driving too slow or fast? Is this a world where people can make negative arguments with one another over poor service at a business or argue about a barking dog with a neighbour? Do humans actually have fights with their family and go separate ways or is this all an illusion?

Is there one human who does not favour their own over others, or does not have thoughts of negative actions against another who offends them with their opinion? Is there one human who does not hold onto some form of sorrow about regrets or pains of loss in this world? Is this place just a bad dream or are humans mere demons in hell trying to delude themselves on the fact that money is not the root of all evil, when in fact, humans who create the concepts of money, government, law, religions and wars are the root of all evil? Conspiracies exist in every household between parents and spouses, they exist in every business between co-workers, in every form of government everywhere. If one wants to know the creator or source of a conspiracy, one only needs to look into a mirror.

The root of all evil is not money, nor government, nor weaponry, but the creators and users, it is humans. The demons who walk the surface embracing lies and suppressing truth, the ones who deceive themselves of their true image of mucousy organs, bloody veins and arteries as seen on posters in rooms throughout medical centres and hospitals. Only the pigment of a skin color hides the true design of a human, a being that persists on believing they are angels, when in fact, their actions have spoken louder than their words since the foundation of human history. Humans are demons in an environment of darkness and nothing more, so quit wondering why all this evil occurs here, quit wondering why beings from beyond would prefer to not associate, simply put, if mankind ever did succeed in space travel, which they will not, they would contaminate that environment with wars and destruction as they do here. If only your species of beings knew, you would be in shock!

I assure you now, all of you exist in a phase of human generation where for once humans and animals and fish and birds are not the only one facing death, but the planet as well. It will need to erase the memories on the hard drive and format a new, this is not fiction or fairytale, but in actuality, scheduled.

Sorry if the words come across wrong, truth is a bitter pill, it is a virus that attacks the disease of lies in this world, and the disease is in the very airs you breathe and exhale. If you want to meet an alien, look into a mirror, you dear alien, created this body that is always changing from nothing more than a speck of air. What you see in the mirror is an alien and the spacesuit you wear here is temporary before separating. You will never consciously know death, but separation and division. The magic of the universe unfolds.

By the way, the faithful are in for a shock. Their Jesus who was never really named Jesus two thousand years ago and was hung by the neck, not crucified, was not brought back by a stork a week ago. Their Jesus whom they invited to Jerusalem to learn their doctrine of deceit, whom fought with the establishment and told their churches the Lord they worshipped was the devil in disguise, whom defied their proposal to enter Judea or Rome to unite the ultimate Testament of Power between the Romans and the Israelites of Hebrew lines, that Jesus who was never named Jesus or "the christ" has already been back for a while. To say the least in all fairness, he is quite unhappy with what is being said and done. Plus he does not plan to stay around this world forever, but to return to an environment where war, misery, injustice and death is non-existent. See if you can figure this oneout? The riddle ends here. See if the super sleuths can put all this together.

You just got to love the writing style, there is a reason that I wrote this in a manner that would have English teachers giving me a "D minus" for grading in grammar. The fun of it all.
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Old 02-16-2013, 03:29 AM   #2
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ading on


Someone told me that according to Judaism, human beings are the only conscious beings in the universe. Is there any basis to this?

First of all, the sages discuss the fact that animals also feel pain, based on the biblical prohibition against causing them undue suffering.

Second, there are plenty of accounts in the Torah of the higher angels, who are conscious of a realm of reality far beyond ours.

Third, Maimonides and others write about the heavenly bodies as conscious beings—and not simply in an allegorical sense. If anyone should ask, “How can a ball of helium and hydrogen contain consciousness?” simply ask in return, “And that a warm mass of gray meat has consciousness is reasonable?”

The uniqueness of humankind is not our consciousness, but the way that consciousness is able to enter the realms of good and evil, make decisions and distinguish between them.

The Lubavitcher Rebbe pointed out that there is support in Torah for the notion that life exists on other planets. Furthermore, we can know something about that life through deduction from what the Torah tells us. Here is his argument:

In the Book of Judges (5:23), Deborah the prophetess sings about the victory of Barak over Sisera. In her song, she says, “Cursed be Meroz! Cursed, cursed be its inhabitants, says the angel of G‑d!”

Where is Meroz, and who are its inhabitants? The Talmud gives two explanations, one of them being that Meroz is a star or planet. The heavenly bodies had also come to help the Israelites, as Deborah stated just one verse earlier, “From the heavens they fought, the stars from their orbits . . .” This star, however, which was the dominant star of Sisera, apparently did not come to their aid. And so, General Barak penalized Meroz—and its inhabitants.

Are these inhabitants intelligent? Intelligence is defined by Torah to mean the capacity to make decisions with free will. Free will is only possible where there is Torah, whereby the Creator offers His creatures more than one possibility and asks that they make the appropriate choice.

So, if there would be intelligent life elsewhere in the universe, those creatures would have to have Torah. Could they have a different Torah than us? This is not possible, since Torah is truth, and there cannot be two truths.

Could they then have the same Torah as us? This also seems impossible, since the Torah itself describes in detail how the Torah was revealed on this planet, and that account itself has a strong impact on how the Torah is to be fulfilled.

It therefore appears that although it is quite possible there is life on other planets, that life would not be intelligent in a way similar to human life and culture.

Dr. Velvl Greene was a biologist who was enlisted by NASA in their project to determine if there is life on Mars. He asked the Lubavitcher Rebbe privately if this was something he should be doing.

The Rebbe replied, “Dr. Greene, look for life on Mars! And if you don’t find it there, look somewhere else in the universe for it. Because for you to sit here and say there is no life outside of planet Earth is to put limitations on the Creator, and that is not something any of His creatures can do!”

Believers say the removal of the photos is tantamount to admitting that NASA is trying to cover up extraterrestrial vistors.

The pictures are gorgeous, by the way. I'm guessing they are pictures of a few satellites, and possibly the Hubble.

If NASA really were involved in an elaborate cover-up, though, it seems unlikely that they'd leave the photos up for over a year before noticing that their ultra-super-top-secret alien ship snapshots were on a public website. Slightly more likely is that they were removed after the space agency realized that they were fueling alien conspiracy theories.

More photos on UFO Sightings Daily

UPDATE: I removed the quote from Clark McClelland, because there is absolutely no evidence that he ever worked on the Space Shuttle.

UPDATE 2: Commenter metoposaurus notes that at least some of these photos are still available on NASA's websites, just in a different location. NASA identifies these as images of "space debris." If you want to have a lot of fun, try searching this NASA database for "space debris." Tons of potential UFOs, people!



The thing was described as "a saucer-shaped object with a dome on top." The images were captured with a 16mm motion picture camera shooting at 12 frames per second from a command/service module window. The object appears momentarily near the moon. As the camera pans, it moves out of the field of view. It reappears as the camera pans back. It appeared in about 50 frames.

Some very bright people recently worked hard to analyze that footage. Their conclusion was that the object wasn't at all what some observers thought it seemed to be. There is no indication the Apollo 16 crew ever thought the film showed anything special.

A group headed by Gregory Byrne of Johnson Space Center's Image Science and Analysis Group completed a report on its investigation earlier this year. They used a video copy of the film initially, then did a high-resolution digital scan of the original film for detailed analysis.

They stabilized images to correct for camera movement, and then aligned multiple frames in a sequence. One thing that showed them was that the object appeared to move slightly with respect to the moon, because of parallax brought about by slight camera motions and the nearness of the object to the camera.

The investigators also combined several frames in a sequence, to give them higher resolution and greater contrast than individual frames. The combinations showed them more clearly a "linear feature" attached to one side of the object. They also looked at archived images from other Apollo missions.

Bottom line: "All of the evidence in this analysis is consistent with the conclusion that the object in the Apollo 16 film was the EVA [spacewalk] floodlight/boom. There is no evidence in the photographic record to suggest otherwise."







research:

Beginning in 1947 with Project Sign, which then became Project Grudge and finally Project Blue Book, the U.S. Air Force conducted formal studies of UFOs, a subject of considerable public and some governmental interest. Blue Book had come under increasing criticism in the 1960s. Growing numbers of critics—including U.S. politicians, newspaper writers, UFO researchers, scientists and some of the general public—were suggesting that Blue Book was conducting shoddy, unsupported research or perpetrating a cover up.[2] The Air Force did not want to continue its studies but did not want a cessation of studies to provoke additional charges of a cover up. UFOs had become such a controversial issue that no other government agency was willing to take on further UFO studies.
Following a wave of UFO reports in 1965, astronomer and Blue Book consultant J. Allen Hynek wrote a letter to the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board (AFSAB) suggesting that a panel convene to re-examine Blue Book. The AFSAB agreed and the committee it formed, chaired by Brian O'Brien, convened for one day in February, 1966, and suggested UFO studies could be undertaken "in more detail and depth than had been possible to date" and that the U.S. Air Force should work "with a few selected universities to provide scientific teams" to study UFOs.[2] The Committee suggested that about 100 well-documented UFO sightings should be studied annually, with about 10 man-days devoted to each case.[3]
At a Congressional UFO hearing on April 5, 1966, Air Force Secretary Harold Brown defended the Air Force's UFO studies and repeated the O'Brien Committee's call for more studies.[2] Hynek repeated his call for "a civilian panel of physical and social scientists" to "examine the UFO problem critically for the express purpose of determining whether a major problem exists."[4] Shortly after the hearing, the Air Force announced it was seeking one or more universities to undertake a study of UFOs. The Air Force wanted to have several groups, but it took some time to find even a single school willing to accept the Air Force's offer. Both Hynek and James E. McDonald suggested their own campuses, Northwestern University and the University of Arizona, and others suggested astronomer Donald Menzel. All were judged too closely allied with one position or another.[5] Walter Orr Roberts, director of the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and Menzel suggested physicist Edward Condon of the University of Colorado.[6]
In the summer of 1966, Condon agreed to consider the Air Force's offer. He was among the best known and most distinguished scientists of his time. Condon's tenacious encounters with the House Unamerican Activities Committee and other government Loyalty Boards in the 1940s and 1950s made him "almost legendary" among fellow scientists.[4][7] On Condon's behalf, Robert J. Low, an assistant dean of the university's graduate program, explored faculty reaction to the proposed project and found it mixed and wary. He tried to reassure those who found the enterprise unworthy of scientific investigation. Low told the Denver Post that the project had met the University's acceptance threshold by the narrowest of margins and was accepted largely because it was difficult to say no to the Air Force.[citation needed] Some have suggested that finances were factor in Colorado's decision to accept the Air Force's offer of $313,000 for the project. Condon dismissed this suggestion, noting that $313,000 was a rather modest budget for an undertaking scheduled to last more than a year with a staff of over a dozen.[8]
On October 6, 1966, the University of Colorado agreed to undertake the UFO study, with Condon as director, Low as coordinator, and Saunders and astronomer Franklin Roach as co-principal investigators. The Air Force announced its selection of Condon and the University of Colorado in October 1966.[6] Other Committee members included astronomer William K. Hartmann; psychologists Michael Wertheimer, Dan Culbertson and James Wadsworth, a graduate student; chemist Roy Craig; electrical engineer Norman Levine; and physicist Frederick Ayer. Several other scientists or experts served in part-time and temporary roles or as consultants.[9] Public response to the Committee's announcement was generally positive[10]
When the Project was announced, The Nation, commented: "If Dr. Condon and his associates come up with anything less than the little green men from Mars, they will be crucified."[11]
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Old 02-16-2013, 07:05 AM   #3
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why is this junk directed at me?


im sorry, but how many times has nibiru supposed to have been (please just include the time this forum has been in teh cyber sphere)

typical really of teh current times.

believe in sci fi, dont do anything proactive for yourselves..
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Old 02-16-2013, 07:06 AM   #4
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never would have conceived that lord nose, is into the galactic federation of light bullshit
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Old 02-16-2013, 09:37 AM   #5
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Quote:
Originally Posted by RAT KING SOLE View Post
never would have conceived that lord nose, is into the galactic federation of light bullshit

you didn't read what i wrote nor did you watch the video

here's proof of what i was saying


Our allies are more assured than ever before, and proceed to place the dark Ones where they can be of least trouble. They squabble amongst themselves and despair at their apparent lack of power to dictate what happens. World control is no longer within their grasp, and they can do no more than dream at what may have been had they not lost it. The Lightworkers now move ahead with renewed confidence and prepare to make a final move, that will effectively put an end to any last chances the dark Ones may have had to gain last ground. It is now more a game of survival for them, but there is no place that they can hide that we will not be aware of. The more we can leave them behind the faster we can concentrate on our own agenda.

Please do not get disheartened when you see little of the outer signs, that would indicate what the Lightworkers are doing. Most of their work is co-ordinated with us as together we have some extremely important work to do very shortly. Lightworkers are to congratulated on becoming settled into their new tasks, and their actions are every bit as important as they ever were. Time continues to speed up and there are more key infusions of Light that are soon to be activated. Slowly but surely the dark and Light are separating, but we still give more opportunities to those who are at a standstill, so that they can continue moving forward. The old paradigm is collapsing and carries no power to hold those back who are now awakening to their true selves. Fear of the unknown is no longer such a problem as it was, and people are finding their trust in God.

We know exactly which souls are aligned with the Light, and have a full profile of each of you. Furthermore, we can pinpoint your location at any given time, so those of the dark and Light are all under our supervision. What will be nice is the time that we can provide you with better means of communication, not just amongst yourselves but also with us. Some of you are destined to do quite a bit of travelling, and for your friends and family it is important that they do not lose track of you. There will of course come a time when all conventional craft will be grounded, and travel will become a pleasurable delightful experience. Eventually all forms of transport will be pollution free, and no longer reliant on a generated electrical source. For local needs a form of "Hop On and Off" buggy will be available. The seaways will not need to be used and airborne traffic will handle all freight, thus allowing the sea and sea stock to be restored to their pristine condition. There will also be the development of stations from which instantaneous dispatch and receipt can be made.

Disclosure is being pushed ahead, and now approached from several different angles and the ultimate outcome revealing your extraterrestrial history will be unavoidable. It will force Governments to admit to their involvement with ET's for at least the last century. It is not just a matter of contact, but also close liaisons that have seen them working together in underground bases. Disclosure must also extend to revealing the amount of evidence of extraterrestrial existence found on other planets such as Mars. However, if your Governments still hold back it will only result in us taking over responsibility for bringing the truth into the open. One way or another it is time for you to understand your historical link with us. We are not intruders or strangers, and many members of the Galactic Federation of Light are your forefathers, linked to you genetically as your species has evolved.

You have come a long way since you were taught that the Earth was the center of the Universe. Life forms such as yours abound everywhere and in multi-dimensions and parallel Earths. God's Universe contains thousands upon thousands of Galaxies, that are yours to travel once you become fully fledged Galactic Beings. The truth is so magnificent that many religions will disappear, as they will find that they can no longer support their beliefs that have been largely man made. Organized religion will no longer be required for the understanding of individual souls to comprehend the truth. All knowledge is within and you have reached that point where you can be your own teacher, and have developed intuitively to know what you personally need to continue your evolution. The truth can be very deep yet you can find your own path through it. If you follow your own understanding it will lead you to where you need to be next, so simply be in the moment and allow things to develop at their own pace. Share knowledge by all means, but know that another souls path is not necessarily going to fulfill your needs.

We have no problems between us as we know that we are amongst ascended Beings, and we recognize each others light levels. The energies are such that only the truth can exist, and there is no question of communicating with each other except on a totally truthful basis. On Earth you often say one thing yet mean another to the point of being untruthful, and it would be wise to practice the truth at all times. We realize that it can sometimes put you in trouble, but ultimately you will never think twice about keeping to the truth. When you think and act honest all of the time, you will have nothing to hide. We have at times met with your leaders and their representatives, and because we are telepathic have known exactly when they have been less than truthful.

Dear Ones, as you can understand you have much to learn and overcome before you will be considered ready to become a Galactic Being, but it is your destiny nevertheless. You are to return to those levels of Light that you once graced, and left to gain experience so that you could be a mentor to others. So be kind to your fellow travelers and compassionate when they err and fall into the darkness. You have all done it and it is inevitable when you are surrounded by such low vibrations. The secret is being able to pick yourself up again, and use your experience to overcome any subsequent challenge of the same nature.

I am SaLuSa, from Sirius and you will know that this year is to be one belonging to the people. A time when you are to be recognized for what you truly are as Sovereign Beings, and have your rights restored. There is much that is waiting to revealed, and we are pleased to be part of it. Our love continues to be sent to you and Mother Earth, and always will.


It does not matter how many predictions are made because as given they are all possibilities, dependent on the extent of your creative powers as to whether they materialize. So we are telling you that what you experienced was what you created, but for those of you expecting more evidence of Ascension it was disappointing. We understand your feelings, but the process of the awakening Ascension energies has not stopped and will proceed even more quickly than previously. The upliftment of energies in your Solar System, took place through the alignment of your Sun and the great Central Sun of the Galaxy, and as many souls experienced some evidence of it, as did not.

Ascension took place but to your surprise souls of the lower vibrations are still with you. That is because many were able to absorb the energy and their vibrations lifted sufficiently for them to rise up, but they will need to raise them at a faster rate if they are to remain with you. Also bear in mind that many souls were unaware of the importance of the 21st. December, so not all of them who did experience something would have known what caused it. It is so to say, their last opportunity to stay in the process of Ascension and avoid having to be taken off Earth if it proves to be in their best interests. All along it has been hoped that as many souls as possible would be able to accept the new energies. So we feel that when you acknowledge the positive outcome, you will be pleased that more of your family of souls have remained.

The New Age has commenced and time will show that nothing has been lost by the nature of your experience. From hereon you will find a much more positive outcome, as it is you who are now in charge of your own future. Your personal cleansing of still unwanted energies can go ahead with all speed, and you should not find any difficulty in being successful. You are now at a new level of happiness and joy for just being alive, and know that you can now proceed to live a new life with more freedom than ever before.


As a result of receiving the energies of the 21st. December, you have moved more into the "Now" and that means you will experience less of time and space. As you move within the 5th. dimension so you will realize that time is no longer linear, and you will sometimes lose all perspective of where you are or how you got there. Do not be afraid however, as you will be able to "think" yourself back to where you were. In time you will begin to perceive other dimensions and realities, and even see other entities that have their being in them.

Your present government along with others largely in your Western World are near to being replaced, and it is an important move that will enable so many other things to go forward. They cannot handle the present crisis brought about by the collapse of a number of banks, and the corrupt systems used by them to bolster their own profits through false trading. The answers are already known to us, and the new ways are prepared and ready for implementation at very short notice. Day by day every soul will continue to grow in awareness, and the net result is that as a civilization you will find yourselves less interested in what the past had to offer you. You are becoming wiser and more astute in discovering how you have been mislead for centuries of time. You are no longer prepared to accept "more of the same", and are demanding a new approach to life that honors everyone's sovereignty and peace and abundance. You need to be able to freely express yourself and relate to all others as One, as unity is what we wish to see you achieving.

We fully understand why some of you are disheartened at the passing of Ascension in a rather quiet manner, but look at the positive aspects. We have tried to guide you to reach the highest perception you have of yourself, and of what you could expect in the New Age, and that encouragement will still continue. The 21st. December alignment took place, and you have commenced the New Age with a higher level of consciousness. It will enable you to accelerate the process of Ascension, and you will see changes taking place in quick succession. Everything you have been led to expect to herald the New Age in will still occur with a greater backing than before, as the way ahead is now virtually clear. You have had great patience so far and we are most grateful for your dedication to the Light and all other souls.. Events will now flow much more smoothly, and we can assure you that the work you have put in to bring the Light and Love to people, has had tremendous results.

Naturally Mother Earth has also ascended, and will go ahead and work with you to bring the New Age into being. There have been few incidents of people having to leave the Earth, and that is a credit to the Lightworkers who have worked so hard to bring all souls into the Light. We are pleased to note that it has released the tension and doubts that some people held, because they were so concerned about friends or family. It holds great hope for those souls who have hitherto, been unaware of the importance of the new period that you have moved into. We know that some of you will look back and question why the impression was given that so much could gave been achieved prior to Ascension. We would say that our motivation has been to place before you every opportunity to advance, through your own creative powers.

We know that the Lightworkers put a lot of time and effort into achieving success, and the apparent failure is no criticism of them. Indeed, there is absolutely no fault in their dedication to their task. It is simply that the circumstances did not meet the criterion for full manifestation of the initial changes that you expected. Yes, there were times when you were so close to seeing your efforts rewarded, but often it was the dark Ones who posed a threat or delay that we could not ignore. Bear in mind that we do not have the authority to force issues unless it is divinely decreed, as it is you who are guiding the outcome and responsible for it.

Be assured that no time has been lost because little progress appears to have been made. Behind the scenes our allies continue to be busy, and are close to bringing about the governmental changes. These are so essential in putting the remains of the old 3D politics behind you, and appointing leaders in power that are aware of the need for immense changes to establish the New Age. You will shortly notice a wave of love sweep the Earth, that will show that your civilization has taken a quantum leap forward. That being so it will bring a strong unity of purpose that will help the establishment of world peace. If you continue to focus on areas of the world that are still experiencing conflict, your intent will soon bring a positive result. When world peace has been achieved we will make sure that war will not return, and will enforce that edict if necessary.

As each day passes the prospects of a greater show of our craft will also dramatically increase. Many eyes will soon be turned towards the poverty and need in the Middle East and far Eastern countries, as compassion and understanding will place the focus where the greatest needs exist. It will force Governments to seriously look at such issues, and take some action. The efforts of our allies will also bring forward the re-distribution of wealth, that has been illegally obtained. So much is at the point of coming out, and with the lower vibrations disappearing more quickly there is less chance of delays taking place.

Dear Ones, consider that you have not lost anything at all by not having your dreams fulfilled, in fact you have gained more than you had before. The way has become clearer and more certain, and our help can begin to be more open. It is why we are eager for disclosure to come as quickly as possible. then we can really get going without any hindrance. The whole outlook has changed for the better, and your efforts will in time be more productive. We are of course close to you most of the time but rarely show ourselves, but that will also change in time. There is to be a coming together, and eventually you will be joined by us, the Masters and your family from the Inner Earth. It will be quite a time of celebration, and the whole world will know we have arrived.

Nothing ever happens by chance, but will follow each divine edict. There are powerful Beings that carry out the word of God without question, but we do understand your doubts and difficulties when things do not seem to go to plan. Yet all events will come to be and fulfill the promises that have been made. It is known to be so as all exists in the Now and simply waits for the right time to manifest. Meaning that when it is going to be of the maximum benefit to your civilization. What is to occur is clearly not just for those who have already awakened, but perhaps in some ways is directed even more strongly at those who still slumber. Now that the lower vibrations are disappearing, they are being given a gentle push and reminder that they are at their own crossroads. They must make a firm decision as to what they want to do, otherwise they will be unable to make progress into the New Age. It is their choice and on a higher level they subconsciously know what is at stake.

I am SaLuSa from Sirius, and let me say that it will not be long before many of you look back at this time, and find the proof of your Ascension by recognizing the changes in yourself. You will also see it in your friends and family, and realize that they are creating a more peaceful aura around them. As the higher energies continue to arrive on Earth their affect will be there for all to see, as Humanity will reach out in Love and bring powerful energies of Light to bear upon those who are still held in the darkness. The Ascension process still proceeds as powerful as ever, and our love will be with you all of the way.

You are about to enter the final stretch of your journey, and very soon to experience a great increase in your levels of consciousness. Most people would agree that this year has passed quicker than any time previously, and after Ascension it will be even faster. We would like to confirm again that progress is also speeding up where the many needed changes are concerned, and you will not miss out on anything that you expected. The timing has never been that critical, and for obvious reasons we look at the period immediately following Ascension. It is a time where our work and that of our allies will not be hampered by outside influences, and we can be more open about it.

After Ascension you will soon forget the past difficulties and delays, as there will be so much to interest you. Learning about your life in the higher vibrations will be exciting and uplifting, and joy and freedom will draw people together as true Brothers and Sisters. It is your natural inclination to share your love with others, but you have been taught that many countries and their people are your enemies. The fact is that the majority would live in peace if only there were no barriers erected between them. As trust is restored so you will see a great change take place in peoples attitude to each other. Sharing and love for what each other represents, will become the new level at which other cultures will be accepted.

Understand that the changes we speak about, are simply the first of many that will transform your different society's. They are a stepping stone to further your advancement towards not just becoming a Galactic Being, but part of a Galactic Civilization. So even the present changes that are in hand will be short lived, because you are destined to leave the last aspects of a 3D civilization behind. However, rather than leave you confused or bewildered by moving too quickly, we do it in way that will enable you to be fully prepared. Even we are not sure what changes will come first but we do know that when they commence, as you might say, they will become fast and furious. The point is Dear Ones, that we are ready to go speeding ahead as soon as we are given the signal.

At present it is not so much that the dark Ones are a problem, but the size of the tasks that have been undertaken require a lot of co-ordination. Much of the plans are now in place, and to do much of it in secrecy to protect those involved has been demanding. Fortunately there are now so many Lightworkers continuing to uplift the energies, they are preventing the dark Ones from having any real impact. Their days are over to all intents and purposes, but even individuals can be troublemakers. We simply keep on reminding you the need to keep focused on Ascension, and sending your Light to any point in the world that is not at peace. Of course it can also be directed at any individual, for example one who talks against the Ascension process to distract them.

Stay positive as you are almost at the portal that allows you to step into to 5th. dimension. You will feel the change in vibration, and it will be a most uplifting experience. Imagine never having to feel those heavy lifeless energies again, that are cold and uninviting. You will be surprised at what a vast difference there is, which is why people that have already experienced it never want to leave the higher levels. It is your more natural state of being but you have been pulled down by the lower vibrations, and it has been a hard challenge to find your way back. However, with great perseverance and determination you have found the Light again, and it will continue to grow and carry you through many dimensions.

As you must know by now, love is all there is and it is what everything is created of and may be changed in form, but cannot be destroyed. It is the most powerful force in the Universe, and it is what you must learn to control and use wisely. God is that power and has shown how it can be used in the most gentle and beneficial way, and that is what you are also experiencing and learning to do. Understand that when we say you are Gods, you have the full potential to be one which tells you that you have unlimited power. Once you ascend your powers of creation will commence to be returned, and you will become co-creators with God. So do not underestimate your abilities and go forth with confidence, as it is you who are setting the scene for your time in the higher dimensions.

Even now some of you have developed powerful healing abilities, and it is belief in yourself that enables you to do so. Most of you do it subconsciously and do not even realize what you have done. When you do realize be aware that you may not necessarily be successful, as some souls do not wish to be healed and desire to go through illness as a means of experience. So do your best with a positive intention that any healing you send out will be for the best results. Instant healing has taken place many, many times as has been recorded. It may not however last unless the recipient is prepared to eliminate the causes that brought it on in the first place. Most illnesses are self inflicted even to the point of causing the bodies immune system to weaken, and making them vulnerable to disease. A healthy body often goes with a healthy mind and habits.

The Galactic Federation of Light is working hard to bring conclusions to a number of projects that are in their final stages. It is touch and go whether you see them this side of Ascension, but if it has to be afterwards the way will be clear for them to go quickly ahead. Be assured that events are creating their own path forwards, and are like a snowball gathering speed and mass. Nothing is clearly now going to stop progress, and we stand by ready for action. We see the Light on Earth reaching new heights as the grids are stabilized, and ready for the final input before Ascension.

I am SaLuSa from Sirius, and send you our blessings to keep your spirits high, as we do not want to see anyone falling back at this late stage in your preparations. We love every soul, and work for each ones release from the dark energies.



Dear friends,

We're setting up an action that can be done at the speed of light.

We know that our world is ruled by corrupt people, who all work together to keep us under control.

We also know that our world has been visited by benevolent ET species, many of them humanoid, who work together in a huge organization called the Galactic Federation of Light.

Why don't they help us and free us from this corrupt regime that has so many people suffering and starving to death?

Well, from what we understand this is for karmic reasons partly, but the main reason is a universal law called "The Law of Non-Interference". This means that a higher civilization cannot just interfere with a lower one, because the natural evolution will be disturbed then.

This all changes when they are INVITED to come down. Then it's no longer a matter of interfering, it's accepting an invitation.

Well, today, we're officially inviting them. Not on behalf of our corrupt governments, who know about the ET presence but are covering it up, but on behalf of ourselves, as sovereign human beings.

Anyone who is awake, and has evolved spiritually, knows that when you send out a thought, it always reaches its destiny. This is how telepathic communication works, for instance, or prayers. We all have this capability, and today, we're gonna use it.

What we will do, is only one thing. Send out this thought, or something like it, in your own words:

"Dear members of the Galactic Federation, and all higher beings who would like to help us, but cannot do so because of certain universal laws. Please help us. We are INVITING you to. On behalf of myself as a sovereign human being, living on planet Earth, I ask you to come down and help us. We know you have been monitoring and visiting us for ages. We know you have technology that could solve our biggest problems, like hunger, pollution and wars, almost in the blink of an eye. But you felt restricted to help us openly, because of universal laws and our "official" representatives, our corrupt governments, not cooperating with you any time you offered your help. Today, we call it ENOUGH. These corrupt governments are NOT representing us. We are representing ourselves and we're asking you to help us. There has been enough suffering on this planet, we want it to end. Please come down and help us. We will welcome you with open arms, and a loving heart."

That's all you need to do.

When you're done, spread this message as far and wide as you can. Anyone in your environment who you think might be open to this, needs to be invited to join. Spread it through your Facebook pages, your e-mail address books, newsletters, anyway you can. You can be sure that your invitation reaches our galactic friends and when they see the scale on which it happens, they have no other option than to see this as an official invitation from mankind.

It's just a matter of numbers. If 200 world governments say "NO, no, no" to them, but behind them, hundreds of thousands of world citizens are shouting "YES! YES! YES!", who are they gonna regard as representing mankind? Surely, it's us. Today, we make it happen. TOGETHER! Please go ahead and add your voice.


A window of opportunity is open at this time and the Galactic Federation have announced through several different channels, including this writer, that they will capitalize on this opportunity and attempt disclosure announcements, as has been long anticipated. There will be a series of global announcements informing the populace of the presence of the Galactic Federation fleet. There will be many who react in fear to these announcements, and the current elitist ruling class who so desperately wish to retain their stranglehold over the planet may attempt to add fuel to the fire by stepping up their propaganda campaign to paint our returning family members as evil invaders. Regardless, nothing can or will prevent humanity’s return to a golden age of peace and prosperity. For those who understand that the Galactic Federation are not invaders but are in fact us, our cosmic brothers and sisters from long ago, and that Earth is, and has always been, a colony of an alliance of many different universal societies, your task is to inform those family, friends, and co-workers within your sphere of influence that our shared families of light have returned to assist us in righting this ship we call home, and prepare us for our welcoming into the galactic community.
Following these initial announcements will be a series of personnel changes within corrupt governments around the globe. Behind the scenes, a new financial system will replace the Federal Reserve Board, finally putting an end to the scam long perpetrated by this private company’s owners that has bankrupted our global financial system. Other changes we all know need to be made within our civilization will quickly follow, and every man, woman, and child on the planet will share in the natural and universal laws of abundance and prosperity.
you didn't do your research - there is proof that your sandwich has been eaten many times before and that the one you have in your hand is actually a hologram made by the annunaki in 9075 BC - here is proof of the original sandwich design


The (mostly) good counterpart to The Empire, generally presided over by Reasonable Authority Figures. The Federation is basically a cross between the United Kingdom and the United States, with vague echoes of the Roman Republic. The actual name may vary, but not by much. Usually has the words "Federation", "United", "Alliance" or equivalent verbiage somewhere in the official title. Almost always a democracy, usually similar to American democracy or British parliament, and has a role similar to the United Nations.
In most sci-fi settings, the Federation is entirely or predominantly human, usually commands a fleet of ISO Standard Human Spaceships, and is most likely to look the closest to Twenty Minutes into the Future when the other factions may be Crystal Spires and Togas, Organic Technology or both. Expect its Capital to be the Shining City and its citizens to wear anything but Spikes of Villainy.
Rarely played as evil outright, but will usually suffer from sometimes-crippling red tape, and the occasional corrupt politicians and/or generals. Another common evil Federation set-up is The Federation opposing the independence of a number of colonies, whether space colonies in orbit, Mars or other planets in the system, or on entirely different systems. Even in this case, the main opposing force may be shown to be Well Intentioned Extremists and/or an example of The Revolution Will Not Be Civilized, willing to hurt innocent people to try to gain their independence, or worse, being used as a front for a truly evil Big Bad. The heroes will usually be either among the good soldiers of the Federation or neutral parties who get caught up in the war; this is especially true in anime. In this case, The Federation will be seen as the lesser of two evils.
If pitted against The Empire, is usually in a Cold War-like state, just recovering from a recent war, or a few international incidents from plunging into one. They often give covert aid (weapons, funds, supplies) to any resistance movements, but won't intervene directly unless they're already at war. In general, it frequently plays an America-like role in the political climate of the setting. If there's a movement to overthrow or undermine it, it's likely The Remnant.
Technically a "federation" is a loose conglomeration of states with common goals and purposes, coordinated by a central government that's independent of them all, and from which they have a certain amount of autonomy. One of the best examples of a federation is Russia: not only is its official name "Russian Federation", but most of the lands with a significant ethnic population, like Chechnya, are highly autonomous regions known as "republics". The Swiss Confederation is also an example. Likewise, the original design of the United States was a federation (hence "federal government"); many so-called "federations" in fiction are nothing of the sort. If the group acts much more like a single country than a bunch of mostly autonomous states, it's probably The Republic.
Note that a 'Confederation' is typically a conglomeration of states that are even more loosely bound than a Federation, the primary difference is that in a Confederation, the federal good is 'never' allowed to outweigh the good of the individual state. Switzerland is a modern example of a successful confederate democracy; the United Arab Emirates is an example of a confederation of absolute monarchies. In fiction, Confederations are typically portrayed as (at best) antagonistic neutrals and at worst, bad guys. This seems to be a holdover from the US civil war.
Compare and contrast The Alliance, usually a more temporary union of nations against a common enema.
there are many woopty wops in this world who love good sandwiches an help is on the way
Several in the Gundam series. Very few of the Federations in Gundam are particularly benevolent:
The Earth Federation in Mobile Suit Gundam. It does not allow citizens in space colonies to vote or have any say in politics, leading to many, many resistance groups forming. It get's worse in Mobile Suit Zeta Gundam, with the Titans - A corrupt branch that ruthlessly suppresses any opposition, including gassing a whole colony.
The Earth Sphere Unified Nation in Gundam Wing. Not to be confused with the United Earth Sphere Alliance, whose general corruption and oppression is what the Gundam pilots are fighting in the first place. In contrast, the Earth Sphere Unified Nation is one of the most benevolent and peaceful examples in the whole Gundam franchise.
The Atlantic and Eurasian Federations in Mobile Suit Gundam Seed. Though part of an alliance of Earth superstates, they're the major influences of that side. Typical for Gundam, both have negative aspects. Though allies, both powers mistrust each other. The Atlantic Federation is prejudiced against Coordinators, influenced by the Blue Cosmos terror group.
The Earth Sphere Federation from Gundam 00 is just a pawn for a tyrannical mastermind, abusing its political power against whoever opposes his reign - and do not forget his right-hand men, the A-LAWS, either. Once the A-Laws and it's masters fall, the Federation becomes much more nicer. By the time of the movie, the Federation is pretty much near Star Trek's level of benevolence.
In addition there's The Union of Solar Energy and Free Nations and the Advanced European Union (AEU). Averting the franchise trend, both groups are actually a pretty nice, save for the occasional political turmoil with it's members.
The Federation from Gundam AGE follows the Gundam pattern of not being especially benevolent to anyone who opposes them.
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Old 02-16-2013, 10:03 AM   #6
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nah i stop at teh bullshit of LIGHTWORKERS
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Old 02-16-2013, 10:05 AM   #7
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you haz no idea, what egotistical fuck bags they are.. while doing my reiki level 2,.. so many 'lightworkers' are frauds.. claiming to speak to entities light years away, bigging up a bullshit non existent group such as the galactic council..


just new age bullshit,


'we are the point where the universe becomes conscious of itself.'
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Old 02-16-2013, 10:13 AM   #8
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then you are missing out because you refuse to read and research what's going on in the world
if you want to continue to be ignorant of what your gub mints are doing to you, go right ahead
those who refuse to learn will suffer.
just in case you change your mind, here is clearer proof that what i was saying is correct - i will not spoon feed you this information. you have to stop being lazy and read it for yourself - just because one thing turned you off, you shouldn't stop learning.

As you probably know, galaxies aren’t individual objects, but vast groupings of stars. In fact, “vast” isn’t a big enough word to describe how many stars there are in galaxies. So, how many stars are in galaxies?
Well, that question depends on the type of the galaxy. The smallest galaxies are called dwarf galaxies. They’re too small to form the vast spiral shape that we see in galaxies like the Milky Way and Andromeda. A dwarf galaxy can have as few as 10 million stars. These dwarf galaxies are constantly being absorbed into larger and larger galaxies.
Our own Milky Way is a spiral galaxy. These are much more massive than the relatively tiny dwarf galaxies, and contain hundreds of billions of stars. For example, the Milky Way contains 200 billion stars – 200,000,000,000 stars. The nearby Andromeda galaxy is much more massive than the Milky Way and contains 1 trillion stars; 5 times as many stars as the Milky Way.
The largest galaxies in the Universe are known as ellipticals. These enormous galaxies have lost their spiral shape through many interactions between large galaxies. They’re found at the cores of the largest galaxy clusters. The biggest galaxy ever discovered is inside the Abell 2029 cluster and contains 100 trillion stars. That’s 100,000,000,000,000 stars.
And just think, there are 100 billion galaxies in the observable Universe. When you put those numbers together, you get an estimate of 1024 stars in the entire Universe. Or a 1 followed by 24 zeroes. That’s 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 stars.
We have written many articles about stars on Universe Today. Here’s an article about how many stars there are in the Milky Way. And here’s an article about the largest structure in the Universe.
Want more information on stars? Here’s Hubblesite’s News Releases about Stars, and more information from NASA’s imagine the Universe.
We have recorded several episodes of Astronomy Cast about stars. Here are two that you might find helpful: Episode 12: Where Do Baby Stars Come From, and Episode 13: Where Do Stars Go When they Die?

The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.[11][12][13][nb 1] This name derives from its appearance as a dim "milky" glowing band arching across the night sky, in which the naked eye cannot distinguish individual stars. The term "Milky Way" is a translation of the Classical Latin via lactea, from the Hellenistic Greek γαλαξίας κύκλος (pr. galaxías kýklos, "milky circle").[14][15][16] The Milky Way appears like a band because it is a disk-shaped structure being viewed from inside. The fact that this faint band of light is made up of stars was proven in 1610 when Galileo Galilei used his telescope to resolve it into individual stars. In the 1920s, observations by astronomer Edwin Hubble showed that the Milky Way is just one of many galaxies.
The Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy 100,000–120,000 light-years in diameter containing 200–400 billion stars. It may contain at least as many planets.[17][18] The Solar System is located within the disk, around two thirds of the way out from the Galactic Center, on the inner edge of a spiral-shaped concentration of gas and dust called the Orion Arm. The stars in the inner ≈10,000 light-years are organized in a bulge and one or more bars. The very center is marked by an intense radio source named Sagittarius A* which is likely to be a supermassive black hole. Stars and gas throughout the Galaxy rotate about the center at approximately the same speed, which contradicts the laws of Keplerian dynamics. This indicates that much of the mass of the Milky Way, known as dark matter, does not emit or absorb electromagnetic radiation.[19] The rotational period is about 200 million years at the position of the Sun.[8] The Galaxy as a whole is moving at a velocity of 552 to 630 km per second, depending on the relative frame of reference. It is estimated to be about 13.2 billion years old, nearly as old as the Universe. Surrounded by several smaller satellite galaxies, the Milky Way is part of the Local Group of galaxies, which forms a subcomponent of the Virgo Supercluster.

When observing the night sky, the term "Milky Way" is limited to the hazy band of white light some 30 degrees wide arcing across the sky[20] (although all of the stars that can be seen with the naked eye are part of the Milky Way Galaxy). The light in this band originates from un-resolved stars and other material that lie within the Galactic plane. Dark regions within the band, such as the Great Rift and the Coalsack, correspond to areas where light from distant stars is blocked by interstellar dust.
The Milky Way has a relatively low surface brightness. Its visibility can be greatly reduced by background light such as light pollution or stray light from the moon. It is readily visible when the limiting magnitude is +5.1 or better, while showing a great deal of detail at +6.1.[21] This makes the Milky Way difficult to see from any brightly lit urban or suburban location but very prominent when viewed from a rural area when the moon is below the horizon.[nb 2]
The Milky Way passes through parts of roughly 30 constellations. The center of the Galaxy lies in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius; it is here that the Milky Way is brightest. From Sagittarius, the hazy band of white light appears to pass westward to the Galactic anticenter in Auriga. The band then continues westward the rest of the way around the sky back to Sagittarius. The fact that the band divides the night sky into two roughly equal hemispheres indicates that the Solar System lies close to the Galactic plane.[citation needed]
The Galactic plane is inclined by about 60 degrees to the ecliptic (the plane of the Earth's orbit). Relative to the celestial equator, it passes as far north as the constellation of Cassiopeia and as far south as the constellation of Crux, indicating the high inclination of Earth's equatorial plane and the plane of the ecliptic relative to the Galactic plane. The north Galactic pole is situated at right ascension 12h 49m, declination +27.4° (B1950) near beta Comae Berenices, and the south Galactic pole is near alpha Sculptoris. Because of this high inclination, depending on the time of night and the year, the arc of Milky Way can appear relatively low or relatively high in the sky. For observers from about 65 degrees north to 65 degrees south on the Earth's surface the Milky Way passes directly overhead twice a day.

The stellar disk of the Milky Way Galaxy is approximately 100,000 ly (31 kpc) in diameter, and is, on average, about 1,000 ly (0.3 kpc) thick.[2] As a guide to the relative physical scale of the Milky Way, if it were reduced to 100 m (110 yd) in diameter, the Solar System, including the hypothesized Oort cloud, would be no more than 1 mm (0.039 in) in width. The nearest star, Proxima Centauri, would be 4.2 mm (0.17 in) distant.[nb 3] Alternatively visualized, if the Solar System out to Pluto were the size of a US quarter (25 mm (0.98 in)) in diameter, the Milky way would be a disk approximately 2,000 km (1,200 mi) in diameter, having roughly one-third the area of the United States.[22]
The Milky Way contains at least 100 billion stars[23] and may have up to 400 billion stars.[24][25] The exact figure depends on the number of very low-mass, or dwarf stars, which are hard to detect, especially at distances of more than 300 ly (90 pc) from the Sun. As a comparison, the neighboring Andromeda Galaxy contains an estimated one trillion (1012) stars.[26] Filling the space between the stars is a disk of gas and dust called the interstellar medium. This disk has at least a comparable extent in radius to the stars,[27] while the thickness of the gas layer ranges from hundreds of light years for the colder gas to thousands of light years for warmer gas.[28][29] Both gravitational microlensing and planetary transit observations indicate that there may be at least as many planets bound to stars as there are stars in the Milky Way,[17][30] while microlensing measurements indicate that there are more rogue planets not bound to host stars than there are stars.[31][32] The Milky Way Galaxy contains at least one planet per star, resulting in 100–400 billion planets, according to a study by Caltech astronomers published in January, 2013.[18] Astronomers at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) reported in January, 2013, that "at least 17 billion" Earth-sized exoplanets are estimated to reside in the Milky Way Galaxy.[33] Such Earth-sized planets may be more numerous than gas giants.[17] Besides exoplanets, "exocomets", comets beyond the Solar System, have also been detected and may be common in the Milky Way Galaxy.[33]
The disk of stars in the Milky Way does not have a sharp edge beyond which there are no stars. Rather, the concentration of stars drops smoothly with distance from the center of the Galaxy. Beyond a radius of roughly 40,000 ly (12 kpc), the number of stars per cubic parsec drops much faster with radius,[34] for reasons that are not understood. Surrounding the Galactic disk is a spherical Galactic Halo of stars and globular clusters that extends further outward, but is limited in size by the orbits of two Milky Way satellites, the Large and the Small Magellanic Clouds, whose closest approach to the Galactic center is about 180,000 ly (55 kpc).[35] At this distance or beyond, the orbits of most halo objects would be disrupted by the Magellanic Clouds. Hence, such objects would probably be ejected from the vicinity of the Milky Way. The integrated absolute visual magnitude of the Milky Way is estimated to be −20.9.[36]
Estimates for the mass of the Milky Way vary, depending upon the method and data used. At the low end of the estimate range, the mass of the Milky Way is 5.8×1011 solar masses (M☉), somewhat smaller than the Andromeda Galaxy.[37][38][39] Measurements using the Very Long Baseline Array in 2009 found velocities as large as 254 km/s for stars at the outer edge of the Milky Way, higher than the previously accepted value of 220 km/s.[40] As the orbital velocity depends on the total mass inside the orbital radius, this suggests that the Milky Way is more massive, roughly equaling the mass of Andromeda Galaxy at 7×1011 M☉ within 160,000 ly (49 kpc) of its center.[41] A 2010 measurement of the radial velocity of halo stars finds the mass enclosed within 80 kiloparsecs is 7×1011 M☉.[42] Most of the mass of the Galaxy appears to be matter of unknown form which interacts with other matter through gravitational but not electromagnetic forces; this is dubbed dark matter. A dark matter halo is spread out relatively uniformly to a distance beyond one hundred kiloparsecs from the Galactic Center. Mathematical models of the Milky Way suggest that the total mass of the entire Galaxy lies in the range 1–1.5×1012 M☉.[6]

The Galaxy consists of a bar-shaped core region surrounded by a disk of gas, dust and stars. The gas, dust and stars are organized in roughly logarithmic spiral arm structures (see Spiral arms below). The mass distribution within the Galaxy closely resembles the SBc Hubble classification, which is a spiral galaxy with relatively loosely wound arms.[1] Astronomers first began to suspect that the Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy, rather than an ordinary spiral galaxy, in the 1990s.[44] Their suspicions were confirmed by the Spitzer Space Telescope observations in 2005[45] that showed the Galaxy's central bar to be larger than previously suspected.
[edit]Galactic Center
Main article: Galactic Center
The Sun is 8.0–8.7 kpc (26,000–28,000 ly) from the Galactic Center. This value is estimated based upon geometric-based methods or using selected astronomical objects that serve as standard candles, with different techniques yielding different values within this approximate range.[7][46][47][48][49] In the inner few kpc (≈10,000 light-years) is a dense concentration of mostly old stars in a roughly spheroidal shape called the bulge.[50] It has been proposed that our galaxy lacks a bulge formed due to a collision and merger between previous galaxies and that instead has a pseudobulge formed by its central bar.[51]
The Galactic Center is marked by an intense radio source named Sagittarius A*. The motion of material around the center indicates that Sagittarius A* harbors a massive, compact object.[52] This concentration of mass is best explained as a supermassive black hole[nb 4][7][46] with an estimated mass of 4.1–4.5 million times the mass of the Sun.[46] Observations indicate that there are supermassive black holes located near the center of most normal galaxies.[53][54]
The nature of the Galaxy's bar is actively debated, with estimates for its half-length and orientation spanning from 1–5 kpc (3,300–16,000 ly) (short or a long bar) and 10–50 degrees relative to the line of sight from Earth to the Galactic Center.[48][49][55] Certain authors advocate that the Galaxy features two distinct bars, one nestled within the other.[56] The bar is delineated by red clump stars. However, RR Lyr variables do not trace a prominent Galactic bar.[49][57][58] The bar may be surrounded by a ring called the "5-kpc ring" that contains a large fraction of the molecular hydrogen present in the Galaxy, as well as most of the Milky Way's star formation activity. Viewed from the Andromeda Galaxy, it would be the brightest feature of our own Galaxy.[59]

Beyond the gravitational influence of the Galactic bars, astronomers generally organize the interstellar medium and stars in the disk of the Milky Way in four spiral arms.[60] All of these arms contain more interstellar gas and dust than the Galactic average as well as a high concentration of star formation, traced by H II regions[61][62] and molecular clouds.[63] Counts of stars in near infrared light indicate that two arms contain approximately 30% more red giant stars than would be expected in the absence of a spiral arm, while two do not contain more red giant stars than regions outside of arms.[64][65]
Maps of the Milky Way's spiral structure are notoriously uncertain and exhibit striking differences.[43][60][62][66][67][68][69][70] Some 150 years after Alexander (1852)[71] first suggested that the Milky Way was a spiral, there is currently no consensus on the nature of the Galaxy's spiral arms. Perfect logarithmic spiral patterns ineptly describe features near the Sun,[62][69] namely since galaxies commonly exhibit arms that branch, merge, twist unexpectedly, and feature a degree of irregularity.[49][69][70] The possible scenario of the Sun within a spur / Local arm[62] emphasizes that point and indicates that such features are probably not unique, and exist elsewhere in the Galaxy.[69]
As in most spiral galaxies, each spiral arm can be described as a logarithmic spiral. Estimates of the pitch angle of the arms range from ≈7° to ≈25°.[64][72] Until recently, there were thought to be four major spiral arms which all start near the Galaxy's center. These are named as follows, with the positions of the arms shown in the image at right:

Another interesting aspect is the so-called "wind-up problem" of the spiral arms. If the inner parts of the arms rotate faster than the outer part, then the galaxy will wind up so much that the spiral structure will be thinned out. But this is not what is observed in spiral galaxies; instead, astronomers propose that the spiral pattern is a density wave emanating from the Galactic Center. This can be likened to a moving traffic jam on a highway—the cars are all moving, but there is always a region of slow-moving cars. This model also agrees with enhanced star formation in or near spiral arms; the compressional waves increase the density of molecular hydrogen and protostars form as a result.
[edit]Halo
The Galactic disk is surrounded by a spheroidal halo of old stars and globular clusters, of which 90% lie within 100,000 light-years (30 kpc) of the Galactic Center,[74] suggesting a stellar halo diameter of 200,000 light-years. However, a few globular clusters have been found farther, such as PAL 4 and AM1 at more than 200,000 light-years away from the Galactic Center. About 40% of the galaxy's clusters are on retrograde orbits, which means they move in the opposite direction from the Milky Way rotation.[75] The globular clusters can follow rosette orbits about the Galaxy, in contrast to the elliptical orbit of a planet around a star.[76]
Astronomers have also found evidence that the Milky Way Galaxy is embedded with a large amount of hot gas in the halo. They found this by using Chandra X-ray Observatory. The halo extends for hundreds of thousand of light years. The mass of the halo is estimated to the mass of the stars in the galaxy. The factors of these depends on the amount of oxygen to hydrogen.[77] The temperature of this halo was said to be between 1 million and 2.5 million kelvin or a few hundred times hotter than the surface of the sun, stated by scientists [78] (news.discovery.com).
While the disk contains gas and dust which obscure the view in some wavelengths, the spheroid component does not. Active star formation takes place in the disk (especially in the spiral arms, which represent areas of high density), but not in the halo. Open clusters also occur primarily in the disk.
Discoveries in the early 21st century have added dimension to the knowledge of the Milky Way's structure. With the discovery that the disk of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) extends much further than previously thought,[79] the possibility of the disk of the Milky Way Galaxy extending further is apparent, and this is supported by evidence from the 2004 discovery of the Outer Arm extension of the Cygnus Arm.[73][80] With the discovery of the Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy came the discovery of a ribbon of galactic debris as the polar orbit of the dwarf and its interaction with the Milky Way tears it apart. Similarly, with the discovery of the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy, it was found that a ring of galactic debris from its interaction with the Milky Way encircles the Galactic disk.
On January 9, 2006, Mario Jurić and others of Princeton University announced that the Sloan Digital Sky Survey of the northern sky found a huge and diffuse structure (spread out across an area around 5,000 times the size of a full moon) within the Milky Way that does not seem to fit within current models. The collection of stars rises close to perpendicular to the plane of the spiral arms of the Galaxy. The proposed likely interpretation is that a dwarf galaxy is merging with the Milky Way. This galaxy is tentatively named the Virgo Stellar Stream and is found in the direction of Virgo about 30,000 light-years (9 kpc) away.[81]
Observations of distant galaxies indicate that the Universe had about one-sixth as much baryonic (ordinary) matter as dark matter when it was just a few billion years old. However, only about half of those baryons are accounted for in the modern Universe based on observations of nearby galaxies like the Milky Way.[82] On September 24, 2012, a team of five astronomers working with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, along with data gathered by the XMM-Newton, and Suzaku (satellite) missions, announced that the halo had a mass nearly equivalent to the baryons in the galaxy itself. They also discovered that it reaches much farther then previously thought, with new estimates showing that it extends as far as the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds.[83][84] If these findings are confirmed it could be the identity of the missing baryons around the Milky Way.[82]

Gamma-ray bubbles
On November 9, 2010, Doug Finkbeiner of the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics announced that he had detected two gigantic spherical bubbles of high energy emission that are erupting to the north and the south of the Milky Way core, using data of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The diameter of each of the bubbles is about 25,000 light-years (7.7 kpc); they stretch up to Grus and to Virgo on the night-sky of the southern hemisphere. Their origin remains unclear, so far.[85][86]
[edit]Sun's location and neighborhood

Diagram of the Sun location in the Milky Way Galaxy. The angles represent longitudes in the galactic coordinate system.

Diagram of the stars in the Solar neighborhood.
The Sun (and therefore the Earth and the Solar System) is near the inner rim of the Galaxy's Orion Arm, in the Local Fluff inside the Local Bubble, and in the Gould Belt, at a distance of 8.33 ± 0.35 kiloparsecs (27,200 ± 1,100 ly) from the Galactic Center.[7][46][87] The Sun is currently 5–30 parsecs (16–98 ly) from the central plane of the Galactic disk.[88] The distance between the local arm and the next arm out, the Perseus Arm, is about 6,500 light-years (2.0 kpc).[89] The Sun, and thus the Solar System, is found in the Galactic habitable zone.
There are about 208 stars brighter than absolute magnitude 8.5 within a sphere with a radius of 15 parsecs (49 ly) from the Sun, giving a density of 0.0147 such stars per cubic parsec, or 0.000424 per cubic light-year (from List of nearest bright stars). On the other hand, there are 64 known stars (of any magnitude, not counting 4 brown dwarfs) within 5 parsecs (16 ly) of the Sun, giving a density of 0.122 stars per cubic parsec, or 0.00352 per cubic light-year (from List of nearest stars), illustrating the fact that most stars are less bright than absolute magnitude 8.5.[citation needed][original research?]
The Apex of the Sun's Way, or the solar apex, is the direction that the Sun travels through space in the Milky Way. The general direction of the Sun's Galactic motion is towards the star Vega near the constellation of Hercules, at an angle of roughly 60 sky degrees to the direction of the Galactic Center. The Sun's orbit around the Galaxy is expected to be roughly elliptical with the addition of perturbations due to the Galactic spiral arms and non-uniform mass distributions. In addition, the Sun oscillates up and down relative to the Galactic plane approximately 2.7 times per orbit. This is very similar to how a simple harmonic oscillator works with no drag force (damping) term. These oscillations were until recently thought to coincide with mass extinction periods on Earth.[90] However, a reanalysis of the effects of the Sun's transit through the spiral structure based on CO data has failed to find these correlations.[91]
It takes the Solar System about 225–250 million years to complete one orbit around the Galaxy (a Galactic year),[92] so the Sun is thought to have completed 18–20 orbits during its lifetime and 1/1250 of a revolution since the origin of humans. The orbital speed of the Solar System about the center of the Galaxy is approximately 220 km/s or 0.073% of the speed of light. At this speed, it takes around 1,400 years for the Solar System to travel a distance of 1 light-year, or 8 days to travel 1 AU (astronomical unit).[93]


here is the heavy mental portion
Galactic rotation
The stars and gas in the Galaxy rotate about its center differentially, meaning that the rotation period varies with location. As is typical for spiral galaxies, the distribution of mass in the Milky Way Galaxy is such that the orbital speed of most stars in the Galaxy does not depend strongly on their distance from the center. Away from the central bulge or outer rim, the typical stellar orbital speed is between 210 and 240 km/s.[96] Hence the orbital period of the typical star is directly proportional only to the length of the path traveled. This is unlike the situation within the Solar System, where two-body gravitational dynamics dominate and different orbits have significantly different velocities associated with them. The rotation curve (shown in the figure) describes this rotation.
If the Galaxy contained only the mass observed in stars, gas, and other baryonic (ordinary) matter, the rotation speed would decrease with distance from the center. However, the observed curve is relatively flat, indicating that there is additional mass that cannot be detected directly with electromagnetic radiation. This inconsistency is attributed to dark matter.[19] Alternatively, a minority of astronomers propose that a modification of the law of gravity may explain the observed rotation curve.[97] The constant rotation speed of most of the Galaxy means that objects further from the Galactic center take longer to orbit the center than objects closer in.
[edit]Formation

Main article: Galaxy formation and evolution
The Milky Way began as one or several small overdensities in the mass distribution in the Universe shortly after the Big Bang. Some of these overdensities were the seeds of globular clusters in which the oldest remaining stars in what is now the Milky Way formed. These stars and clusters now comprise the stellar halo of the Galaxy. Within a few billion years of the birth of the first stars, the mass of the Milky Way was large enough so that it was spinning relatively quickly. Due to conservation of angular momentum, this led the gaseous interstellar medium to collapse from a roughly spheroidal shape to a disk. Therefore, later generations of stars formed in this spiral disk. Most younger stars, including the Sun, are observed to be in the disk.[98][99]
Since the first stars began to form, the Milky Way has grown through both galaxy mergers (particularly early in the Galaxy's growth) and accretion of gas directly from the Galactic halo.[99] The Milky Way is currently accreting material from its two nearest satellite galaxies, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, through the Magellanic Stream. Direct accretion of gas is observed in high velocity clouds like the Smith Cloud.[100][101] However, properties of the Milky Way such as stellar mass, angular momentum, and metallicity in its outermost regions suggest it has suffered no mergers with large galaxies in the last 10 billion years. This lack of recent major mergers is unusual among similar spiral galaxies; its neighbour the Andromeda Galaxy appears to have a more typical history shaped by more recent mergers with relatively large galaxies.[102][103]
According to recent studies, the Milky Way as well as Andromeda lie in what in the galaxy color-magnitude diagram is known as the green valley, a region populated by galaxies in transition from the blue cloud (galaxies actively forming new stars) to the red sequence (galaxies that lack star formation). Star formation activity in green valley galaxies is slowing as they run out of star-forming gas in the interstellar medium. In simulated galaxies with similar properties, star formation will typically have been extinguished within about five billion years from now, even accounting for the expected, short-term increase in the rate of star formation due to the collision between both our galaxy and M31.[104] In fact, measurements of other galaxies similar to our own suggest it's among the reddest and brightest spiral galaxies that are still forming new stars and it's just slightly bluer than the bluest red sequence galaxies.[105]

Age
The ages of individual stars in the Milky Way can be estimated by measuring the abundance of long-lived radioactive elements such as thorium-232 and uranium-238, then comparing the results to estimates of their original abundance, a technique called nucleocosmochronology. These yield values of about 14.0 ± 2.4 billion years (Ga) for CS 31082-001 and 13.8 ± 4 billion years for BD+17° 3248[citation needed]. Once a white dwarf star is formed, it begins to undergo radiative cooling and the surface temperature steadily drops. By measuring the temperatures of the coolest of these white dwarfs and comparing them to their expected initial temperature, an age estimate can be made. With this technique, the age of the globular cluster M4 was estimated as 12.7 ± 0.7 billion years. Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in the Milky Way Galaxy, which thus set a lower limit on the age of the galaxy. Age estimates of the oldest of these clusters gives a best fit estimate of 12.6 billion years, and a 95% confidence upper limit of 16 billion years.[106]
In 2007, a star in the galactic halo, HE 1523-0901, was estimated to be about 13.2 billion years old, ≈0.5 billion years less than the age of the universe. As the oldest known object in the Milky Way at that time, this measurement placed a lower limit on the age of the Milky Way.[5] This estimate was determined using the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph of the Very Large Telescope to measure the relative strengths of spectral lines caused by the presence of thorium and other elements created by the R-process. The line strengths yield abundances of different elemental isotopes, from which an estimate of the age of the star can be derived using nucleocosmochronology.[5]
The age of stars in the galactic thin disk has also been estimated using nucleocosmochronology. Measurements of thin disk stars yield an estimate that the thin disk formed 8.8 ± 1.7 billion years ago. These measurements suggest there was a hiatus of almost 5 billion years between the formation of the galactic halo and the thin disk.[107]
[edit]Environment


Diagram of the galaxies in the Local Group relative to the Milky Way.

The position of the Local Group within the Virgo Supercluster.
Main articles: Local Group and Andromeda–Milky Way collision
The Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy are a binary system of giant spiral galaxies belonging to a group of 50 closely bound galaxies known as the Local Group, itself being part of the Virgo Supercluster.
Two smaller galaxies and a number of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group orbit the Milky Way. The largest of these is the Large Magellanic Cloud with a diameter of 20,000 light-years. It has a close companion, the Small Magellanic Cloud. The Magellanic Stream is a peculiar streamer of neutral hydrogen gas connecting these two small galaxies. The stream is thought to have been dragged from the Magellanic Clouds in tidal interactions with the Milky Way. Some of the dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way are Canis Major Dwarf (the closest), Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy, Ursa Minor Dwarf, Sculptor Dwarf, Sextans Dwarf, Fornax Dwarf, and Leo I Dwarf. The smallest Milky Way dwarf galaxies are only 500 light-years in diameter. These include Carina Dwarf, Draco Dwarf, and Leo II Dwarf. There may still be undetected dwarf galaxies, which are dynamically bound to the Milky Way, as well as some that have already been absorbed by the Milky Way, such as Omega Centauri. Observations through the Zone of Avoidance are frequently detecting new distant and nearby galaxies. Some galaxies consisting mostly of gas and dust may also have evaded detection so far.
In January 2006, researchers reported that the heretofore unexplained warp in the disk of the Milky Way has now been mapped and found to be a ripple or vibration set up by the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds as they circle the Galaxy, causing vibrations at certain frequencies when they pass through its edges.[108] Previously, these two galaxies, at around 2% of the mass of the Milky Way, were considered too small to influence the Milky Way. However, by taking into account dark matter, the movement of these two galaxies creates a wake that influences the larger Milky Way. Taking dark matter into account results in an approximately twentyfold increase in mass for the galaxy. This calculation is according to a computer model made by Martin Weinberg of the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In this model, the dark matter is spreading out from the Galactic disk with the known gas layer. As a result, the model predicts that the gravitational effect of the Magellanic Clouds is amplified as they pass through the Galaxy.
Current measurements suggest the Andromeda Galaxy is approaching us at 100 to 140 kilometers per second. The Milky Way may collide with it in 3 to 4 billion years, depending on the importance of unknown lateral components to the galaxies' relative motion. If they collide, individual stars within the galaxies would not collide, but instead the two galaxies will merge to form a single elliptical galaxy over the course of about a billion years.[109]Age
The ages of individual stars in the Milky Way can be estimated by measuring the abundance of long-lived radioactive elements such as thorium-232 and uranium-238, then comparing the results to estimates of their original abundance, a technique called nucleocosmochronology. These yield values of about 14.0 ± 2.4 billion years (Ga) for CS 31082-001 and 13.8 ± 4 billion years for BD+17° 3248[citation needed]. Once a white dwarf star is formed, it begins to undergo radiative cooling and the surface temperature steadily drops. By measuring the temperatures of the coolest of these white dwarfs and comparing them to their expected initial temperature, an age estimate can be made. With this technique, the age of the globular cluster M4 was estimated as 12.7 ± 0.7 billion years. Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in the Milky Way Galaxy, which thus set a lower limit on the age of the galaxy. Age estimates of the oldest of these clusters gives a best fit estimate of 12.6 billion years, and a 95% confidence upper limit of 16 billion years.[106]
In 2007, a star in the galactic halo, HE 1523-0901, was estimated to be about 13.2 billion years old, ≈0.5 billion years less than the age of the universe. As the oldest known object in the Milky Way at that time, this measurement placed a lower limit on the age of the Milky Way.[5] This estimate was determined using the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph of the Very Large Telescope to measure the relative strengths of spectral lines caused by the presence of thorium and other elements created by the R-process. The line strengths yield abundances of different elemental isotopes, from which an estimate of the age of the star can be derived using nucleocosmochronology.[5]
The age of stars in the galactic thin disk has also been estimated using nucleocosmochronology. Measurements of thin disk stars yield an estimate that the thin disk formed 8.8 ± 1.7 billion years ago. These measurements suggest there was a hiatus of almost 5 billion years between the formation of the galactic halo and the thin disk.[107]
[edit]Environment


Diagram of the galaxies in the Local Group relative to the Milky Way.

The position of the Local Group within the Virgo Supercluster.
Main articles: Local Group and Andromeda–Milky Way collision
The Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy are a binary system of giant spiral galaxies belonging to a group of 50 closely bound galaxies known as the Local Group, itself being part of the Virgo Supercluster.
Two smaller galaxies and a number of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group orbit the Milky Way. The largest of these is the Large Magellanic Cloud with a diameter of 20,000 light-years. It has a close companion, the Small Magellanic Cloud. The Magellanic Stream is a peculiar streamer of neutral hydrogen gas connecting these two small galaxies. The stream is thought to have been dragged from the Magellanic Clouds in tidal interactions with the Milky Way. Some of the dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way are Canis Major Dwarf (the closest), Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy, Ursa Minor Dwarf, Sculptor Dwarf, Sextans Dwarf, Fornax Dwarf, and Leo I Dwarf. The smallest Milky Way dwarf galaxies are only 500 light-years in diameter. These include Carina Dwarf, Draco Dwarf, and Leo II Dwarf. There may still be undetected dwarf galaxies, which are dynamically bound to the Milky Way, as well as some that have already been absorbed by the Milky Way, such as Omega Centauri. Observations through the Zone of Avoidance are frequently detecting new distant and nearby galaxies. Some galaxies consisting mostly of gas and dust may also have evaded detection so far.
In January 2006, researchers reported that the heretofore unexplained warp in the disk of the Milky Way has now been mapped and found to be a ripple or vibration set up by the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds as they circle the Galaxy, causing vibrations at certain frequencies when they pass through its edges.[108] Previously, these two galaxies, at around 2% of the mass of the Milky Way, were considered too small to influence the Milky Way. However, by taking into account dark matter, the movement of these two galaxies creates a wake that influences the larger Milky Way. Taking dark matter into account results in an approximately twentyfold increase in mass for the galaxy. This calculation is according to a computer model made by Martin Weinberg of the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In this model, the dark matter is spreading out from the Galactic disk with the known gas layer. As a result, the model predicts that the gravitational effect of the Magellanic Clouds is amplified as they pass through the Galaxy.
Current measurements suggest the Andromeda Galaxy is approaching us at 100 to 140 kilometers per second. The Milky Way may collide with it in 3 to 4 billion years, depending on the importance of unknown lateral components to the galaxies' relative motion. If they collide, individual stars within the galaxies would not collide, but instead the two galaxies will merge to form a single elliptical galaxy over the course of about a billion years.[109]
Age
The ages of individual stars in the Milky Way can be estimated by measuring the abundance of long-lived radioactive elements such as thorium-232 and uranium-238, then comparing the results to estimates of their original abundance, a technique called nucleocosmochronology. These yield values of about 14.0 ± 2.4 billion years (Ga) for CS 31082-001 and 13.8 ± 4 billion years for BD+17° 3248[citation needed]. Once a white dwarf star is formed, it begins to undergo radiative cooling and the surface temperature steadily drops. By measuring the temperatures of the coolest of these white dwarfs and comparing them to their expected initial temperature, an age estimate can be made. With this technique, the age of the globular cluster M4 was estimated as 12.7 ± 0.7 billion years. Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in the Milky Way Galaxy, which thus set a lower limit on the age of the galaxy. Age estimates of the oldest of these clusters gives a best fit estimate of 12.6 billion years, and a 95% confidence upper limit of 16 billion years.[106]
In 2007, a star in the galactic halo, HE 1523-0901, was estimated to be about 13.2 billion years old, ≈0.5 billion years less than the age of the universe. As the oldest known object in the Milky Way at that time, this measurement placed a lower limit on the age of the Milky Way.[5] This estimate was determined using the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph of the Very Large Telescope to measure the relative strengths of spectral lines caused by the presence of thorium and other elements created by the R-process. The line strengths yield abundances of different elemental isotopes, from which an estimate of the age of the star can be derived using nucleocosmochronology.[5]
The age of stars in the galactic thin disk has also been estimated using nucleocosmochronology. Measurements of thin disk stars yield an estimate that the thin disk formed 8.8 ± 1.7 billion years ago. These measurements suggest there was a hiatus of almost 5 billion years between the formation of the galactic halo and the thin disk.[107]
[edit]Environment


Diagram of the galaxies in the Local Group relative to the Milky Way.

The position of the Local Group within the Virgo Supercluster.
Main articles: Local Group and Andromeda–Milky Way collision
The Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy are a binary system of giant spiral galaxies belonging to a group of 50 closely bound galaxies known as the Local Group, itself being part of the Virgo Supercluster.
Two smaller galaxies and a number of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group orbit the Milky Way. The largest of these is the Large Magellanic Cloud with a diameter of 20,000 light-years. It has a close companion, the Small Magellanic Cloud. The Magellanic Stream is a peculiar streamer of neutral hydrogen gas connecting these two small galaxies. The stream is thought to have been dragged from the Magellanic Clouds in tidal interactions with the Milky Way. Some of the dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way are Canis Major Dwarf (the closest), Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy, Ursa Minor Dwarf, Sculptor Dwarf, Sextans Dwarf, Fornax Dwarf, and Leo I Dwarf. The smallest Milky Way dwarf galaxies are only 500 light-years in diameter. These include Carina Dwarf, Draco Dwarf, and Leo II Dwarf. There may still be undetected dwarf galaxies, which are dynamically bound to the Milky Way, as well as some that have already been absorbed by the Milky Way, such as Omega Centauri. Observations through the Zone of Avoidance are frequently detecting new distant and nearby galaxies. Some galaxies consisting mostly of gas and dust may also have evaded detection so far.
In January 2006, researchers reported that the heretofore unexplained warp in the disk of the Milky Way has now been mapped and found to be a ripple or vibration set up by the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds as they circle the Galaxy, causing vibrations at certain frequencies when they pass through its edges.[108] Previously, these two galaxies, at around 2% of the mass of the Milky Way, were considered too small to influence the Milky Way. However, by taking into account dark matter, the movement of these two galaxies creates a wake that influences the larger Milky Way. Taking dark matter into account results in an approximately twentyfold increase in mass for the galaxy. This calculation is according to a computer model made by Martin Weinberg of the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In this model, the dark matter is spreading out from the Galactic disk with the known gas layer. As a result, the model predicts that the gravitational effect of the Magellanic Clouds is amplified as they pass through the Galaxy.
Current measurements suggest the Andromeda Galaxy is approaching us at 100 to 140 kilometers per second. The Milky Way may collide with it in 3 to 4 billion years, depending on the importance of unknown lateral components to the galaxies' relative motion. If they collide, individual stars within the galaxies would not collide, but instead the two galaxies will merge to form a single elliptical galaxy over the course of about a billion years.[109]

In the general sense, the absolute velocity of any object through space is not a meaningful question according to Einstein's special theory of relativity, which declares that there is no "preferred" inertial frame of reference in space with which to compare the object's motion. (Motion must always be specified with respect to another object.) This must be kept in mind when discussing the Galaxy's motion.
Astronomers believe the Milky Way is moving at approximately 630 km per second relative to the average velocity of galaxies taken over a large enough volume so that the expansion of the Universe dominates over local, random motions: the local co-moving frame of reference that moves with the Hubble flow.[110][further explanation needed] The Milky Way is moving in the general direction of the Great Attractor and other galaxy clusters, including the Shapley supercluster, behind it.[111] The Local Group (a cluster of gravitationally bound galaxies containing, among others, the Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy) is part of a supercluster called the Local Supercluster, centered near the Virgo Cluster: although they are moving away from each other at 967 km/s as part of the Hubble flow, this velocity is less than would be expected given the 16.8 million pc distance due to the gravitational attraction between the Local Group and the Virgo Cluster.[112]
Another reference frame is provided by the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The Milky Way is moving at 552 ± 6 km/s[10] with respect to the photons of the CMB, toward 10.5 right ascension, −24° declination (J2000 epoch, near the center of Hydra). This motion is observed by satellites such as the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) as a dipole contribution to the CMB, as photons in equilibrium in the CMB frame get blue-shifted in the direction of the motion and red-shifted in the opposite direction.[10]

AND THIS !
The shape of the Milky Way as deduced from star counts by William Herschel in 1785; the Solar System was assumed near center
As Aristotle (384–322 BC) informs us in Meteorologica (DK 59 A80), the Greek philosophers Anaxagoras (ca. 500–428 BC) and Democritus (450–370 BC) proposed the Milky Way might consist of distant stars. However, Aristotle himself believed the Milky Way to be caused by "the ignition of the fiery exhalation of some stars which were large, numerous and close together" and that the "ignition takes place in the upper part of the atmosphere, in the region of the world which is continuous with the heavenly motions."[122] The Neoplatonist philosopher Olympiodorus the Younger (c. 495–570 A.D.) criticized this view, arguing that if the Milky Way were sublunary it should appear different at different times and places on the Earth, and that it should have parallax, which it does not. In his view, the Milky Way was celestial. This idea would be influential later in the Islamic world.[123]
The Persian astronomer Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (973–1048) proposed that the Milky Way is "a collection of countless fragments of the nature of nebulous stars".[124] The Andalusian astronomer Avempace (d. 1138) proposed the Milky Way to be made up of many stars but appears to be a continuous image due to the effect of refraction in the Earth's atmosphere, citing his observation of a conjunction of Jupiter and Mars in 1106 or 1107 as evidence.[122] Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (1292–1350) proposed the Milky Way Galaxy to be "a myriad of tiny stars packed together in the sphere of the fixed stars" and that these stars are larger than planets.[125]
According to Jamil Ragep, the Persian astronomer Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī (1201–1274) in his Tadhkira writes: "The Milky Way, i.e. the Galaxy, is made up of a very large number of small, tightly clustered stars, which, on account of their concentration and smallness, seem to be cloudy patches. Because of this, it was likened to milk in color."[126]
Actual proof of the Milky Way consisting of many stars came in 1610 when Galileo Galilei used a telescope to study the Milky Way and discovered that it was composed of a huge number of faint stars.[127] In a treatise in 1755, Immanuel Kant, drawing on earlier work by Thomas Wright, speculated (correctly) that the Milky Way might be a rotating body of a huge number of stars, held together by gravitational forces akin to the Solar System but on much larger scales. The resulting disk of stars would be seen as a band on the sky from our perspective inside the disk. Kant also conjectured that some of the nebulae visible in the night sky might be separate "galaxies" themselves, similar to our own. Kant referred to both our Galaxy and the "extragalactic nebulae" as "island universes", a term still current up to the 1930s.[128]
The first attempt to describe the shape of the Milky Way and the position of the Sun within it was carried out by William Herschel in 1785 by carefully counting the number of stars in different regions of the visible sky. He produced a diagram of the shape of the Galaxy with the Solar System close to the center.
In 1845, Lord Rosse constructed a new telescope and was able to distinguish between elliptical and spiral-shaped nebulae. He also managed to make out individual point sources in some of these nebulae, lending credence to Kant's earlier conjecture.[129]


Photograph of the "Great Andromeda Nebula" from 1899, later identified as the Andromeda Galaxy
In 1917, Heber Curtis had observed the nova S Andromedae within the "Great Andromeda Nebula" (Messier object M31). Searching the photographic record, he found 11 more novae. Curtis noticed that these novae were, on average, 10 magnitudes fainter than those that occurred within our Galaxy. As a result he was able to come up with a distance estimate of 150,000 parsecs. He became a proponent of the "island universes" hypothesis, which held that the spiral nebulae were actually independent galaxies.[130] In 1920 the Great Debate took place between Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis, concerning the nature of the Milky Way, spiral nebulae, and the dimensions of the universe. To support his claim that the Great Andromeda Nebula was an external galaxy, Curtis noted the appearance of dark lanes resembling the dust clouds in the Milky Way, as well as the significant Doppler shift.[131]
The matter was conclusively settled by Edwin Hubble in the early 1920s using the Mount Wilson observatory 100 inch (2.5 m) Hooker telescope. With the light-gathering power of this new telescope he was able to produce astronomical photographs that resolved the outer parts of some spiral nebulae as collections of individual stars. He was also able to identify some Cepheid variables that he could use as a benchmark to estimate the distance to the nebulae: proving they were far too distant to be part of the Milky Way.[132] In 1936, Hubble produced a classification system for galaxies that is used to this day, the Hubble sequence.[133]
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then you are missing out because you refuse to read and research what's going on in the world
if you want to continue to be ignorant of what your gub mints are doing to you, go right ahead
those who refuse to learn will suffer.
just in case you change your mind, here is clearer proof that what i was saying is correct - i will not spoon feed you this information. you have to stop being lazy and read it for yourself - just because one thing turned you off, you shouldn't stop learning.

As you probably know, galaxies aren’t individual objects, but vast groupings of stars. In fact, “vast” isn’t a big enough word to describe how many stars there are in galaxies. So, how many stars are in galaxies?
Well, that question depends on the type of the galaxy. The smallest galaxies are called dwarf galaxies. They’re too small to form the vast spiral shape that we see in galaxies like the Milky Way and Andromeda. A dwarf galaxy can have as few as 10 million stars. These dwarf galaxies are constantly being absorbed into larger and larger galaxies.
Our own Milky Way is a spiral galaxy. These are much more massive than the relatively tiny dwarf galaxies, and contain hundreds of billions of stars. For example, the Milky Way contains 200 billion stars – 200,000,000,000 stars. The nearby Andromeda galaxy is much more massive than the Milky Way and contains 1 trillion stars; 5 times as many stars as the Milky Way.
The largest galaxies in the Universe are known as ellipticals. These enormous galaxies have lost their spiral shape through many interactions between large galaxies. They’re found at the cores of the largest galaxy clusters. The biggest galaxy ever discovered is inside the Abell 2029 cluster and contains 100 trillion stars. That’s 100,000,000,000,000 stars.
And just think, there are 100 billion galaxies in the observable Universe. When you put those numbers together, you get an estimate of 1024 stars in the entire Universe. Or a 1 followed by 24 zeroes. That’s 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 stars.
We have written many articles about stars on Universe Today. Here’s an article about how many stars there are in the Milky Way. And here’s an article about the largest structure in the Universe.
Want more information on stars? Here’s Hubblesite’s News Releases about Stars, and more information from NASA’s imagine the Universe.
We have recorded several episodes of Astronomy Cast about stars. Here are two that you might find helpful: Episode 12: Where Do Baby Stars Come From, and Episode 13: Where Do Stars Go When they Die?

The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.[11][12][13][nb 1] This name derives from its appearance as a dim "milky" glowing band arching across the night sky, in which the naked eye cannot distinguish individual stars. The term "Milky Way" is a translation of the Classical Latin via lactea, from the Hellenistic Greek γαλαξίας κύκλος (pr. galaxías kýklos, "milky circle").[14][15][16] The Milky Way appears like a band because it is a disk-shaped structure being viewed from inside. The fact that this faint band of light is made up of stars was proven in 1610 when Galileo Galilei used his telescope to resolve it into individual stars. In the 1920s, observations by astronomer Edwin Hubble showed that the Milky Way is just one of many galaxies.
The Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy 100,000–120,000 light-years in diameter containing 200–400 billion stars. It may contain at least as many planets.[17][18] The Solar System is located within the disk, around two thirds of the way out from the Galactic Center, on the inner edge of a spiral-shaped concentration of gas and dust called the Orion Arm. The stars in the inner ≈10,000 light-years are organized in a bulge and one or more bars. The very center is marked by an intense radio source named Sagittarius A* which is likely to be a supermassive black hole. Stars and gas throughout the Galaxy rotate about the center at approximately the same speed, which contradicts the laws of Keplerian dynamics. This indicates that much of the mass of the Milky Way, known as dark matter, does not emit or absorb electromagnetic radiation.[19] The rotational period is about 200 million years at the position of the Sun.[8] The Galaxy as a whole is moving at a velocity of 552 to 630 km per second, depending on the relative frame of reference. It is estimated to be about 13.2 billion years old, nearly as old as the Universe. Surrounded by several smaller satellite galaxies, the Milky Way is part of the Local Group of galaxies, which forms a subcomponent of the Virgo Supercluster.

When observing the night sky, the term "Milky Way" is limited to the hazy band of white light some 30 degrees wide arcing across the sky[20] (although all of the stars that can be seen with the naked eye are part of the Milky Way Galaxy). The light in this band originates from un-resolved stars and other material that lie within the Galactic plane. Dark regions within the band, such as the Great Rift and the Coalsack, correspond to areas where light from distant stars is blocked by interstellar dust.
The Milky Way has a relatively low surface brightness. Its visibility can be greatly reduced by background light such as light pollution or stray light from the moon. It is readily visible when the limiting magnitude is +5.1 or better, while showing a great deal of detail at +6.1.[21] This makes the Milky Way difficult to see from any brightly lit urban or suburban location but very prominent when viewed from a rural area when the moon is below the horizon.[nb 2]
The Milky Way passes through parts of roughly 30 constellations. The center of the Galaxy lies in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius; it is here that the Milky Way is brightest. From Sagittarius, the hazy band of white light appears to pass westward to the Galactic anticenter in Auriga. The band then continues westward the rest of the way around the sky back to Sagittarius. The fact that the band divides the night sky into two roughly equal hemispheres indicates that the Solar System lies close to the Galactic plane.[citation needed]
The Galactic plane is inclined by about 60 degrees to the ecliptic (the plane of the Earth's orbit). Relative to the celestial equator, it passes as far north as the constellation of Cassiopeia and as far south as the constellation of Crux, indicating the high inclination of Earth's equatorial plane and the plane of the ecliptic relative to the Galactic plane. The north Galactic pole is situated at right ascension 12h 49m, declination +27.4° (B1950) near beta Comae Berenices, and the south Galactic pole is near alpha Sculptoris. Because of this high inclination, depending on the time of night and the year, the arc of Milky Way can appear relatively low or relatively high in the sky. For observers from about 65 degrees north to 65 degrees south on the Earth's surface the Milky Way passes directly overhead twice a day.

The stellar disk of the Milky Way Galaxy is approximately 100,000 ly (31 kpc) in diameter, and is, on average, about 1,000 ly (0.3 kpc) thick.[2] As a guide to the relative physical scale of the Milky Way, if it were reduced to 100 m (110 yd) in diameter, the Solar System, including the hypothesized Oort cloud, would be no more than 1 mm (0.039 in) in width. The nearest star, Proxima Centauri, would be 4.2 mm (0.17 in) distant.[nb 3] Alternatively visualized, if the Solar System out to Pluto were the size of a US quarter (25 mm (0.98 in)) in diameter, the Milky way would be a disk approximately 2,000 km (1,200 mi) in diameter, having roughly one-third the area of the United States.[22]
The Milky Way contains at least 100 billion stars[23] and may have up to 400 billion stars.[24][25] The exact figure depends on the number of very low-mass, or dwarf stars, which are hard to detect, especially at distances of more than 300 ly (90 pc) from the Sun. As a comparison, the neighboring Andromeda Galaxy contains an estimated one trillion (1012) stars.[26] Filling the space between the stars is a disk of gas and dust called the interstellar medium. This disk has at least a comparable extent in radius to the stars,[27] while the thickness of the gas layer ranges from hundreds of light years for the colder gas to thousands of light years for warmer gas.[28][29] Both gravitational microlensing and planetary transit observations indicate that there may be at least as many planets bound to stars as there are stars in the Milky Way,[17][30] while microlensing measurements indicate that there are more rogue planets not bound to host stars than there are stars.[31][32] The Milky Way Galaxy contains at least one planet per star, resulting in 100–400 billion planets, according to a study by Caltech astronomers published in January, 2013.[18] Astronomers at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) reported in January, 2013, that "at least 17 billion" Earth-sized exoplanets are estimated to reside in the Milky Way Galaxy.[33] Such Earth-sized planets may be more numerous than gas giants.[17] Besides exoplanets, "exocomets", comets beyond the Solar System, have also been detected and may be common in the Milky Way Galaxy.[33]
The disk of stars in the Milky Way does not have a sharp edge beyond which there are no stars. Rather, the concentration of stars drops smoothly with distance from the center of the Galaxy. Beyond a radius of roughly 40,000 ly (12 kpc), the number of stars per cubic parsec drops much faster with radius,[34] for reasons that are not understood. Surrounding the Galactic disk is a spherical Galactic Halo of stars and globular clusters that extends further outward, but is limited in size by the orbits of two Milky Way satellites, the Large and the Small Magellanic Clouds, whose closest approach to the Galactic center is about 180,000 ly (55 kpc).[35] At this distance or beyond, the orbits of most halo objects would be disrupted by the Magellanic Clouds. Hence, such objects would probably be ejected from the vicinity of the Milky Way. The integrated absolute visual magnitude of the Milky Way is estimated to be −20.9.[36]
Estimates for the mass of the Milky Way vary, depending upon the method and data used. At the low end of the estimate range, the mass of the Milky Way is 5.8×1011 solar masses (M☉), somewhat smaller than the Andromeda Galaxy.[37][38][39] Measurements using the Very Long Baseline Array in 2009 found velocities as large as 254 km/s for stars at the outer edge of the Milky Way, higher than the previously accepted value of 220 km/s.[40] As the orbital velocity depends on the total mass inside the orbital radius, this suggests that the Milky Way is more massive, roughly equaling the mass of Andromeda Galaxy at 7×1011 M☉ within 160,000 ly (49 kpc) of its center.[41] A 2010 measurement of the radial velocity of halo stars finds the mass enclosed within 80 kiloparsecs is 7×1011 M☉.[42] Most of the mass of the Galaxy appears to be matter of unknown form which interacts with other matter through gravitational but not electromagnetic forces; this is dubbed dark matter. A dark matter halo is spread out relatively uniformly to a distance beyond one hundred kiloparsecs from the Galactic Center. Mathematical models of the Milky Way suggest that the total mass of the entire Galaxy lies in the range 1–1.5×1012 M☉.[6]

The Galaxy consists of a bar-shaped core region surrounded by a disk of gas, dust and stars. The gas, dust and stars are organized in roughly logarithmic spiral arm structures (see Spiral arms below). The mass distribution within the Galaxy closely resembles the SBc Hubble classification, which is a spiral galaxy with relatively loosely wound arms.[1] Astronomers first began to suspect that the Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy, rather than an ordinary spiral galaxy, in the 1990s.[44] Their suspicions were confirmed by the Spitzer Space Telescope observations in 2005[45] that showed the Galaxy's central bar to be larger than previously suspected.
[edit]Galactic Center
Main article: Galactic Center
The Sun is 8.0–8.7 kpc (26,000–28,000 ly) from the Galactic Center. This value is estimated based upon geometric-based methods or using selected astronomical objects that serve as standard candles, with different techniques yielding different values within this approximate range.[7][46][47][48][49] In the inner few kpc (≈10,000 light-years) is a dense concentration of mostly old stars in a roughly spheroidal shape called the bulge.[50] It has been proposed that our galaxy lacks a bulge formed due to a collision and merger between previous galaxies and that instead has a pseudobulge formed by its central bar.[51]
The Galactic Center is marked by an intense radio source named Sagittarius A*. The motion of material around the center indicates that Sagittarius A* harbors a massive, compact object.[52] This concentration of mass is best explained as a supermassive black hole[nb 4][7][46] with an estimated mass of 4.1–4.5 million times the mass of the Sun.[46] Observations indicate that there are supermassive black holes located near the center of most normal galaxies.[53][54]
The nature of the Galaxy's bar is actively debated, with estimates for its half-length and orientation spanning from 1–5 kpc (3,300–16,000 ly) (short or a long bar) and 10–50 degrees relative to the line of sight from Earth to the Galactic Center.[48][49][55] Certain authors advocate that the Galaxy features two distinct bars, one nestled within the other.[56] The bar is delineated by red clump stars. However, RR Lyr variables do not trace a prominent Galactic bar.[49][57][58] The bar may be surrounded by a ring called the "5-kpc ring" that contains a large fraction of the molecular hydrogen present in the Galaxy, as well as most of the Milky Way's star formation activity. Viewed from the Andromeda Galaxy, it would be the brightest feature of our own Galaxy.[59]

Beyond the gravitational influence of the Galactic bars, astronomers generally organize the interstellar medium and stars in the disk of the Milky Way in four spiral arms.[60] All of these arms contain more interstellar gas and dust than the Galactic average as well as a high concentration of star formation, traced by H II regions[61][62] and molecular clouds.[63] Counts of stars in near infrared light indicate that two arms contain approximately 30% more red giant stars than would be expected in the absence of a spiral arm, while two do not contain more red giant stars than regions outside of arms.[64][65]
Maps of the Milky Way's spiral structure are notoriously uncertain and exhibit striking differences.[43][60][62][66][67][68][69][70] Some 150 years after Alexander (1852)[71] first suggested that the Milky Way was a spiral, there is currently no consensus on the nature of the Galaxy's spiral arms. Perfect logarithmic spiral patterns ineptly describe features near the Sun,[62][69] namely since galaxies commonly exhibit arms that branch, merge, twist unexpectedly, and feature a degree of irregularity.[49][69][70] The possible scenario of the Sun within a spur / Local arm[62] emphasizes that point and indicates that such features are probably not unique, and exist elsewhere in the Galaxy.[69]
As in most spiral galaxies, each spiral arm can be described as a logarithmic spiral. Estimates of the pitch angle of the arms range from ≈7° to ≈25°.[64][72] Until recently, there were thought to be four major spiral arms which all start near the Galaxy's center. These are named as follows, with the positions of the arms shown in the image at right:

Another interesting aspect is the so-called "wind-up problem" of the spiral arms. If the inner parts of the arms rotate faster than the outer part, then the galaxy will wind up so much that the spiral structure will be thinned out. But this is not what is observed in spiral galaxies; instead, astronomers propose that the spiral pattern is a density wave emanating from the Galactic Center. This can be likened to a moving traffic jam on a highway—the cars are all moving, but there is always a region of slow-moving cars. This model also agrees with enhanced star formation in or near spiral arms; the compressional waves increase the density of molecular hydrogen and protostars form as a result.
[edit]Halo
The Galactic disk is surrounded by a spheroidal halo of old stars and globular clusters, of which 90% lie within 100,000 light-years (30 kpc) of the Galactic Center,[74] suggesting a stellar halo diameter of 200,000 light-years. However, a few globular clusters have been found farther, such as PAL 4 and AM1 at more than 200,000 light-years away from the Galactic Center. About 40% of the galaxy's clusters are on retrograde orbits, which means they move in the opposite direction from the Milky Way rotation.[75] The globular clusters can follow rosette orbits about the Galaxy, in contrast to the elliptical orbit of a planet around a star.[76]
Astronomers have also found evidence that the Milky Way Galaxy is embedded with a large amount of hot gas in the halo. They found this by using Chandra X-ray Observatory. The halo extends for hundreds of thousand of light years. The mass of the halo is estimated to the mass of the stars in the galaxy. The factors of these depends on the amount of oxygen to hydrogen.[77] The temperature of this halo was said to be between 1 million and 2.5 million kelvin or a few hundred times hotter than the surface of the sun, stated by scientists [78] (news.discovery.com).
While the disk contains gas and dust which obscure the view in some wavelengths, the spheroid component does not. Active star formation takes place in the disk (especially in the spiral arms, which represent areas of high density), but not in the halo. Open clusters also occur primarily in the disk.
Discoveries in the early 21st century have added dimension to the knowledge of the Milky Way's structure. With the discovery that the disk of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) extends much further than previously thought,[79] the possibility of the disk of the Milky Way Galaxy extending further is apparent, and this is supported by evidence from the 2004 discovery of the Outer Arm extension of the Cygnus Arm.[73][80] With the discovery of the Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy came the discovery of a ribbon of galactic debris as the polar orbit of the dwarf and its interaction with the Milky Way tears it apart. Similarly, with the discovery of the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy, it was found that a ring of galactic debris from its interaction with the Milky Way encircles the Galactic disk.
On January 9, 2006, Mario Jurić and others of Princeton University announced that the Sloan Digital Sky Survey of the northern sky found a huge and diffuse structure (spread out across an area around 5,000 times the size of a full moon) within the Milky Way that does not seem to fit within current models. The collection of stars rises close to perpendicular to the plane of the spiral arms of the Galaxy. The proposed likely interpretation is that a dwarf galaxy is merging with the Milky Way. This galaxy is tentatively named the Virgo Stellar Stream and is found in the direction of Virgo about 30,000 light-years (9 kpc) away.[81]
Observations of distant galaxies indicate that the Universe had about one-sixth as much baryonic (ordinary) matter as dark matter when it was just a few billion years old. However, only about half of those baryons are accounted for in the modern Universe based on observations of nearby galaxies like the Milky Way.[82] On September 24, 2012, a team of five astronomers working with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, along with data gathered by the XMM-Newton, and Suzaku (satellite) missions, announced that the halo had a mass nearly equivalent to the baryons in the galaxy itself. They also discovered that it reaches much farther then previously thought, with new estimates showing that it extends as far as the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds.[83][84] If these findings are confirmed it could be the identity of the missing baryons around the Milky Way.[82]

Gamma-ray bubbles
On November 9, 2010, Doug Finkbeiner of the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics announced that he had detected two gigantic spherical bubbles of high energy emission that are erupting to the north and the south of the Milky Way core, using data of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The diameter of each of the bubbles is about 25,000 light-years (7.7 kpc); they stretch up to Grus and to Virgo on the night-sky of the southern hemisphere. Their origin remains unclear, so far.[85][86]
[edit]Sun's location and neighborhood

Diagram of the Sun location in the Milky Way Galaxy. The angles represent longitudes in the galactic coordinate system.

Diagram of the stars in the Solar neighborhood.
The Sun (and therefore the Earth and the Solar System) is near the inner rim of the Galaxy's Orion Arm, in the Local Fluff inside the Local Bubble, and in the Gould Belt, at a distance of 8.33 ± 0.35 kiloparsecs (27,200 ± 1,100 ly) from the Galactic Center.[7][46][87] The Sun is currently 5–30 parsecs (16–98 ly) from the central plane of the Galactic disk.[88] The distance between the local arm and the next arm out, the Perseus Arm, is about 6,500 light-years (2.0 kpc).[89] The Sun, and thus the Solar System, is found in the Galactic habitable zone.
There are about 208 stars brighter than absolute magnitude 8.5 within a sphere with a radius of 15 parsecs (49 ly) from the Sun, giving a density of 0.0147 such stars per cubic parsec, or 0.000424 per cubic light-year (from List of nearest bright stars). On the other hand, there are 64 known stars (of any magnitude, not counting 4 brown dwarfs) within 5 parsecs (16 ly) of the Sun, giving a density of 0.122 stars per cubic parsec, or 0.00352 per cubic light-year (from List of nearest stars), illustrating the fact that most stars are less bright than absolute magnitude 8.5.[citation needed][original research?]
The Apex of the Sun's Way, or the solar apex, is the direction that the Sun travels through space in the Milky Way. The general direction of the Sun's Galactic motion is towards the star Vega near the constellation of Hercules, at an angle of roughly 60 sky degrees to the direction of the Galactic Center. The Sun's orbit around the Galaxy is expected to be roughly elliptical with the addition of perturbations due to the Galactic spiral arms and non-uniform mass distributions. In addition, the Sun oscillates up and down relative to the Galactic plane approximately 2.7 times per orbit. This is very similar to how a simple harmonic oscillator works with no drag force (damping) term. These oscillations were until recently thought to coincide with mass extinction periods on Earth.[90] However, a reanalysis of the effects of the Sun's transit through the spiral structure based on CO data has failed to find these correlations.[91]
It takes the Solar System about 225–250 million years to complete one orbit around the Galaxy (a Galactic year),[92] so the Sun is thought to have completed 18–20 orbits during its lifetime and 1/1250 of a revolution since the origin of humans. The orbital speed of the Solar System about the center of the Galaxy is approximately 220 km/s or 0.073% of the speed of light. At this speed, it takes around 1,400 years for the Solar System to travel a distance of 1 light-year, or 8 days to travel 1 AU (astronomical unit).[93]


here is the heavy mental portion
Galactic rotation
The stars and gas in the Galaxy rotate about its center differentially, meaning that the rotation period varies with location. As is typical for spiral galaxies, the distribution of mass in the Milky Way Galaxy is such that the orbital speed of most stars in the Galaxy does not depend strongly on their distance from the center. Away from the central bulge or outer rim, the typical stellar orbital speed is between 210 and 240 km/s.[96] Hence the orbital period of the typical star is directly proportional only to the length of the path traveled. This is unlike the situation within the Solar System, where two-body gravitational dynamics dominate and different orbits have significantly different velocities associated with them. The rotation curve (shown in the figure) describes this rotation.
If the Galaxy contained only the mass observed in stars, gas, and other baryonic (ordinary) matter, the rotation speed would decrease with distance from the center. However, the observed curve is relatively flat, indicating that there is additional mass that cannot be detected directly with electromagnetic radiation. This inconsistency is attributed to dark matter.[19] Alternatively, a minority of astronomers propose that a modification of the law of gravity may explain the observed rotation curve.[97] The constant rotation speed of most of the Galaxy means that objects further from the Galactic center take longer to orbit the center than objects closer in.
[edit]Formation

Main article: Galaxy formation and evolution
The Milky Way began as one or several small overdensities in the mass distribution in the Universe shortly after the Big Bang. Some of these overdensities were the seeds of globular clusters in which the oldest remaining stars in what is now the Milky Way formed. These stars and clusters now comprise the stellar halo of the Galaxy. Within a few billion years of the birth of the first stars, the mass of the Milky Way was large enough so that it was spinning relatively quickly. Due to conservation of angular momentum, this led the gaseous interstellar medium to collapse from a roughly spheroidal shape to a disk. Therefore, later generations of stars formed in this spiral disk. Most younger stars, including the Sun, are observed to be in the disk.[98][99]
Since the first stars began to form, the Milky Way has grown through both galaxy mergers (particularly early in the Galaxy's growth) and accretion of gas directly from the Galactic halo.[99] The Milky Way is currently accreting material from its two nearest satellite galaxies, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, through the Magellanic Stream. Direct accretion of gas is observed in high velocity clouds like the Smith Cloud.[100][101] However, properties of the Milky Way such as stellar mass, angular momentum, and metallicity in its outermost regions suggest it has suffered no mergers with large galaxies in the last 10 billion years. This lack of recent major mergers is unusual among similar spiral galaxies; its neighbour the Andromeda Galaxy appears to have a more typical history shaped by more recent mergers with relatively large galaxies.[102][103]
According to recent studies, the Milky Way as well as Andromeda lie in what in the galaxy color-magnitude diagram is known as the green valley, a region populated by galaxies in transition from the blue cloud (galaxies actively forming new stars) to the red sequence (galaxies that lack star formation). Star formation activity in green valley galaxies is slowing as they run out of star-forming gas in the interstellar medium. In simulated galaxies with similar properties, star formation will typically have been extinguished within about five billion years from now, even accounting for the expected, short-term increase in the rate of star formation due to the collision between both our galaxy and M31.[104] In fact, measurements of other galaxies similar to our own suggest it's among the reddest and brightest spiral galaxies that are still forming new stars and it's just slightly bluer than the bluest red sequence galaxies.[105]

Age
The ages of individual stars in the Milky Way can be estimated by measuring the abundance of long-lived radioactive elements such as thorium-232 and uranium-238, then comparing the results to estimates of their original abundance, a technique called nucleocosmochronology. These yield values of about 14.0 ± 2.4 billion years (Ga) for CS 31082-001 and 13.8 ± 4 billion years for BD+17° 3248[citation needed]. Once a white dwarf star is formed, it begins to undergo radiative cooling and the surface temperature steadily drops. By measuring the temperatures of the coolest of these white dwarfs and comparing them to their expected initial temperature, an age estimate can be made. With this technique, the age of the globular cluster M4 was estimated as 12.7 ± 0.7 billion years. Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in the Milky Way Galaxy, which thus set a lower limit on the age of the galaxy. Age estimates of the oldest of these clusters gives a best fit estimate of 12.6 billion years, and a 95% confidence upper limit of 16 billion years.[106]
In 2007, a star in the galactic halo, HE 1523-0901, was estimated to be about 13.2 billion years old, ≈0.5 billion years less than the age of the universe. As the oldest known object in the Milky Way at that time, this measurement placed a lower limit on the age of the Milky Way.[5] This estimate was determined using the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph of the Very Large Telescope to measure the relative strengths of spectral lines caused by the presence of thorium and other elements created by the R-process. The line strengths yield abundances of different elemental isotopes, from which an estimate of the age of the star can be derived using nucleocosmochronology.[5]
The age of stars in the galactic thin disk has also been estimated using nucleocosmochronology. Measurements of thin disk stars yield an estimate that the thin disk formed 8.8 ± 1.7 billion years ago. These measurements suggest there was a hiatus of almost 5 billion years between the formation of the galactic halo and the thin disk.[107]
[edit]Environment


Diagram of the galaxies in the Local Group relative to the Milky Way.

The position of the Local Group within the Virgo Supercluster.
Main articles: Local Group and Andromeda–Milky Way collision
The Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy are a binary system of giant spiral galaxies belonging to a group of 50 closely bound galaxies known as the Local Group, itself being part of the Virgo Supercluster.
Two smaller galaxies and a number of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group orbit the Milky Way. The largest of these is the Large Magellanic Cloud with a diameter of 20,000 light-years. It has a close companion, the Small Magellanic Cloud. The Magellanic Stream is a peculiar streamer of neutral hydrogen gas connecting these two small galaxies. The stream is thought to have been dragged from the Magellanic Clouds in tidal interactions with the Milky Way. Some of the dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way are Canis Major Dwarf (the closest), Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy, Ursa Minor Dwarf, Sculptor Dwarf, Sextans Dwarf, Fornax Dwarf, and Leo I Dwarf. The smallest Milky Way dwarf galaxies are only 500 light-years in diameter. These include Carina Dwarf, Draco Dwarf, and Leo II Dwarf. There may still be undetected dwarf galaxies, which are dynamically bound to the Milky Way, as well as some that have already been absorbed by the Milky Way, such as Omega Centauri. Observations through the Zone of Avoidance are frequently detecting new distant and nearby galaxies. Some galaxies consisting mostly of gas and dust may also have evaded detection so far.
In January 2006, researchers reported that the heretofore unexplained warp in the disk of the Milky Way has now been mapped and found to be a ripple or vibration set up by the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds as they circle the Galaxy, causing vibrations at certain frequencies when they pass through its edges.[108] Previously, these two galaxies, at around 2% of the mass of the Milky Way, were considered too small to influence the Milky Way. However, by taking into account dark matter, the movement of these two galaxies creates a wake that influences the larger Milky Way. Taking dark matter into account results in an approximately twentyfold increase in mass for the galaxy. This calculation is according to a computer model made by Martin Weinberg of the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In this model, the dark matter is spreading out from the Galactic disk with the known gas layer. As a result, the model predicts that the gravitational effect of the Magellanic Clouds is amplified as they pass through the Galaxy.
Current measurements suggest the Andromeda Galaxy is approaching us at 100 to 140 kilometers per second. The Milky Way may collide with it in 3 to 4 billion years, depending on the importance of unknown lateral components to the galaxies' relative motion. If they collide, individual stars within the galaxies would not collide, but instead the two galaxies will merge to form a single elliptical galaxy over the course of about a billion years.[109]Age
The ages of individual stars in the Milky Way can be estimated by measuring the abundance of long-lived radioactive elements such as thorium-232 and uranium-238, then comparing the results to estimates of their original abundance, a technique called nucleocosmochronology. These yield values of about 14.0 ± 2.4 billion years (Ga) for CS 31082-001 and 13.8 ± 4 billion years for BD+17° 3248[citation needed]. Once a white dwarf star is formed, it begins to undergo radiative cooling and the surface temperature steadily drops. By measuring the temperatures of the coolest of these white dwarfs and comparing them to their expected initial temperature, an age estimate can be made. With this technique, the age of the globular cluster M4 was estimated as 12.7 ± 0.7 billion years. Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in the Milky Way Galaxy, which thus set a lower limit on the age of the galaxy. Age estimates of the oldest of these clusters gives a best fit estimate of 12.6 billion years, and a 95% confidence upper limit of 16 billion years.[106]
In 2007, a star in the galactic halo, HE 1523-0901, was estimated to be about 13.2 billion years old, ≈0.5 billion years less than the age of the universe. As the oldest known object in the Milky Way at that time, this measurement placed a lower limit on the age of the Milky Way.[5] This estimate was determined using the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph of the Very Large Telescope to measure the relative strengths of spectral lines caused by the presence of thorium and other elements created by the R-process. The line strengths yield abundances of different elemental isotopes, from which an estimate of the age of the star can be derived using nucleocosmochronology.[5]
The age of stars in the galactic thin disk has also been estimated using nucleocosmochronology. Measurements of thin disk stars yield an estimate that the thin disk formed 8.8 ± 1.7 billion years ago. These measurements suggest there was a hiatus of almost 5 billion years between the formation of the galactic halo and the thin disk.[107]
[edit]Environment


Diagram of the galaxies in the Local Group relative to the Milky Way.

The position of the Local Group within the Virgo Supercluster.
Main articles: Local Group and Andromeda–Milky Way collision
The Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy are a binary system of giant spiral galaxies belonging to a group of 50 closely bound galaxies known as the Local Group, itself being part of the Virgo Supercluster.
Two smaller galaxies and a number of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group orbit the Milky Way. The largest of these is the Large Magellanic Cloud with a diameter of 20,000 light-years. It has a close companion, the Small Magellanic Cloud. The Magellanic Stream is a peculiar streamer of neutral hydrogen gas connecting these two small galaxies. The stream is thought to have been dragged from the Magellanic Clouds in tidal interactions with the Milky Way. Some of the dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way are Canis Major Dwarf (the closest), Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy, Ursa Minor Dwarf, Sculptor Dwarf, Sextans Dwarf, Fornax Dwarf, and Leo I Dwarf. The smallest Milky Way dwarf galaxies are only 500 light-years in diameter. These include Carina Dwarf, Draco Dwarf, and Leo II Dwarf. There may still be undetected dwarf galaxies, which are dynamically bound to the Milky Way, as well as some that have already been absorbed by the Milky Way, such as Omega Centauri. Observations through the Zone of Avoidance are frequently detecting new distant and nearby galaxies. Some galaxies consisting mostly of gas and dust may also have evaded detection so far.
In January 2006, researchers reported that the heretofore unexplained warp in the disk of the Milky Way has now been mapped and found to be a ripple or vibration set up by the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds as they circle the Galaxy, causing vibrations at certain frequencies when they pass through its edges.[108] Previously, these two galaxies, at around 2% of the mass of the Milky Way, were considered too small to influence the Milky Way. However, by taking into account dark matter, the movement of these two galaxies creates a wake that influences the larger Milky Way. Taking dark matter into account results in an approximately twentyfold increase in mass for the galaxy. This calculation is according to a computer model made by Martin Weinberg of the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In this model, the dark matter is spreading out from the Galactic disk with the known gas layer. As a result, the model predicts that the gravitational effect of the Magellanic Clouds is amplified as they pass through the Galaxy.
Current measurements suggest the Andromeda Galaxy is approaching us at 100 to 140 kilometers per second. The Milky Way may collide with it in 3 to 4 billion years, depending on the importance of unknown lateral components to the galaxies' relative motion. If they collide, individual stars within the galaxies would not collide, but instead the two galaxies will merge to form a single elliptical galaxy over the course of about a billion years.[109]
Age
The ages of individual stars in the Milky Way can be estimated by measuring the abundance of long-lived radioactive elements such as thorium-232 and uranium-238, then comparing the results to estimates of their original abundance, a technique called nucleocosmochronology. These yield values of about 14.0 ± 2.4 billion years (Ga) for CS 31082-001 and 13.8 ± 4 billion years for BD+17° 3248[citation needed]. Once a white dwarf star is formed, it begins to undergo radiative cooling and the surface temperature steadily drops. By measuring the temperatures of the coolest of these white dwarfs and comparing them to their expected initial temperature, an age estimate can be made. With this technique, the age of the globular cluster M4 was estimated as 12.7 ± 0.7 billion years. Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in the Milky Way Galaxy, which thus set a lower limit on the age of the galaxy. Age estimates of the oldest of these clusters gives a best fit estimate of 12.6 billion years, and a 95% confidence upper limit of 16 billion years.[106]
In 2007, a star in the galactic halo, HE 1523-0901, was estimated to be about 13.2 billion years old, ≈0.5 billion years less than the age of the universe. As the oldest known object in the Milky Way at that time, this measurement placed a lower limit on the age of the Milky Way.[5] This estimate was determined using the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph of the Very Large Telescope to measure the relative strengths of spectral lines caused by the presence of thorium and other elements created by the R-process. The line strengths yield abundances of different elemental isotopes, from which an estimate of the age of the star can be derived using nucleocosmochronology.[5]
The age of stars in the galactic thin disk has also been estimated using nucleocosmochronology. Measurements of thin disk stars yield an estimate that the thin disk formed 8.8 ± 1.7 billion years ago. These measurements suggest there was a hiatus of almost 5 billion years between the formation of the galactic halo and the thin disk.[107]
[edit]Environment


Diagram of the galaxies in the Local Group relative to the Milky Way.

The position of the Local Group within the Virgo Supercluster.
Main articles: Local Group and Andromeda–Milky Way collision
The Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy are a binary system of giant spiral galaxies belonging to a group of 50 closely bound galaxies known as the Local Group, itself being part of the Virgo Supercluster.
Two smaller galaxies and a number of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group orbit the Milky Way. The largest of these is the Large Magellanic Cloud with a diameter of 20,000 light-years. It has a close companion, the Small Magellanic Cloud. The Magellanic Stream is a peculiar streamer of neutral hydrogen gas connecting these two small galaxies. The stream is thought to have been dragged from the Magellanic Clouds in tidal interactions with the Milky Way. Some of the dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way are Canis Major Dwarf (the closest), Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy, Ursa Minor Dwarf, Sculptor Dwarf, Sextans Dwarf, Fornax Dwarf, and Leo I Dwarf. The smallest Milky Way dwarf galaxies are only 500 light-years in diameter. These include Carina Dwarf, Draco Dwarf, and Leo II Dwarf. There may still be undetected dwarf galaxies, which are dynamically bound to the Milky Way, as well as some that have already been absorbed by the Milky Way, such as Omega Centauri. Observations through the Zone of Avoidance are frequently detecting new distant and nearby galaxies. Some galaxies consisting mostly of gas and dust may also have evaded detection so far.
In January 2006, researchers reported that the heretofore unexplained warp in the disk of the Milky Way has now been mapped and found to be a ripple or vibration set up by the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds as they circle the Galaxy, causing vibrations at certain frequencies when they pass through its edges.[108] Previously, these two galaxies, at around 2% of the mass of the Milky Way, were considered too small to influence the Milky Way. However, by taking into account dark matter, the movement of these two galaxies creates a wake that influences the larger Milky Way. Taking dark matter into account results in an approximately twentyfold increase in mass for the galaxy. This calculation is according to a computer model made by Martin Weinberg of the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In this model, the dark matter is spreading out from the Galactic disk with the known gas layer. As a result, the model predicts that the gravitational effect of the Magellanic Clouds is amplified as they pass through the Galaxy.
Current measurements suggest the Andromeda Galaxy is approaching us at 100 to 140 kilometers per second. The Milky Way may collide with it in 3 to 4 billion years, depending on the importance of unknown lateral components to the galaxies' relative motion. If they collide, individual stars within the galaxies would not collide, but instead the two galaxies will merge to form a single elliptical galaxy over the course of about a billion years.[109]

In the general sense, the absolute velocity of any object through space is not a meaningful question according to Einstein's special theory of relativity, which declares that there is no "preferred" inertial frame of reference in space with which to compare the object's motion. (Motion must always be specified with respect to another object.) This must be kept in mind when discussing the Galaxy's motion.
Astronomers believe the Milky Way is moving at approximately 630 km per second relative to the average velocity of galaxies taken over a large enough volume so that the expansion of the Universe dominates over local, random motions: the local co-moving frame of reference that moves with the Hubble flow.[110][further explanation needed] The Milky Way is moving in the general direction of the Great Attractor and other galaxy clusters, including the Shapley supercluster, behind it.[111] The Local Group (a cluster of gravitationally bound galaxies containing, among others, the Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy) is part of a supercluster called the Local Supercluster, centered near the Virgo Cluster: although they are moving away from each other at 967 km/s as part of the Hubble flow, this velocity is less than would be expected given the 16.8 million pc distance due to the gravitational attraction between the Local Group and the Virgo Cluster.[112]
Another reference frame is provided by the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The Milky Way is moving at 552 ± 6 km/s[10] with respect to the photons of the CMB, toward 10.5 right ascension, −24° declination (J2000 epoch, near the center of Hydra). This motion is observed by satellites such as the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) as a dipole contribution to the CMB, as photons in equilibrium in the CMB frame get blue-shifted in the direction of the motion and red-shifted in the opposite direction.[10]

AND THIS !
The shape of the Milky Way as deduced from star counts by William Herschel in 1785; the Solar System was assumed near center
As Aristotle (384–322 BC) informs us in Meteorologica (DK 59 A80), the Greek philosophers Anaxagoras (ca. 500–428 BC) and Democritus (450–370 BC) proposed the Milky Way might consist of distant stars. However, Aristotle himself believed the Milky Way to be caused by "the ignition of the fiery exhalation of some stars which were large, numerous and close together" and that the "ignition takes place in the upper part of the atmosphere, in the region of the world which is continuous with the heavenly motions."[122] The Neoplatonist philosopher Olympiodorus the Younger (c. 495–570 A.D.) criticized this view, arguing that if the Milky Way were sublunary it should appear different at different times and places on the Earth, and that it should have parallax, which it does not. In his view, the Milky Way was celestial. This idea would be influential later in the Islamic world.[123]
The Persian astronomer Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (973–1048) proposed that the Milky Way is "a collection of countless fragments of the nature of nebulous stars".[124] The Andalusian astronomer Avempace (d. 1138) proposed the Milky Way to be made up of many stars but appears to be a continuous image due to the effect of refraction in the Earth's atmosphere, citing his observation of a conjunction of Jupiter and Mars in 1106 or 1107 as evidence.[122] Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (1292–1350) proposed the Milky Way Galaxy to be "a myriad of tiny stars packed together in the sphere of the fixed stars" and that these stars are larger than planets.[125]
According to Jamil Ragep, the Persian astronomer Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī (1201–1274) in his Tadhkira writes: "The Milky Way, i.e. the Galaxy, is made up of a very large number of small, tightly clustered stars, which, on account of their concentration and smallness, seem to be cloudy patches. Because of this, it was likened to milk in color."[126]
Actual proof of the Milky Way consisting of many stars came in 1610 when Galileo Galilei used a telescope to study the Milky Way and discovered that it was composed of a huge number of faint stars.[127] In a treatise in 1755, Immanuel Kant, drawing on earlier work by Thomas Wright, speculated (correctly) that the Milky Way might be a rotating body of a huge number of stars, held together by gravitational forces akin to the Solar System but on much larger scales. The resulting disk of stars would be seen as a band on the sky from our perspective inside the disk. Kant also conjectured that some of the nebulae visible in the night sky might be separate "galaxies" themselves, similar to our own. Kant referred to both our Galaxy and the "extragalactic nebulae" as "island universes", a term still current up to the 1930s.[128]
The first attempt to describe the shape of the Milky Way and the position of the Sun within it was carried out by William Herschel in 1785 by carefully counting the number of stars in different regions of the visible sky. He produced a diagram of the shape of the Galaxy with the Solar System close to the center.
In 1845, Lord Rosse constructed a new telescope and was able to distinguish between elliptical and spiral-shaped nebulae. He also managed to make out individual point sources in some of these nebulae, lending credence to Kant's earlier conjecture.[129]


Photograph of the "Great Andromeda Nebula" from 1899, later identified as the Andromeda Galaxy
In 1917, Heber Curtis had observed the nova S Andromedae within the "Great Andromeda Nebula" (Messier object M31). Searching the photographic record, he found 11 more novae. Curtis noticed that these novae were, on average, 10 magnitudes fainter than those that occurred within our Galaxy. As a result he was able to come up with a distance estimate of 150,000 parsecs. He became a proponent of the "island universes" hypothesis, which held that the spiral nebulae were actually independent galaxies.[130] In 1920 the Great Debate took place between Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis, concerning the nature of the Milky Way, spiral nebulae, and the dimensions of the universe. To support his claim that the Great Andromeda Nebula was an external galaxy, Curtis noted the appearance of dark lanes resembling the dust clouds in the Milky Way, as well as the significant Doppler shift.[131]
The matter was conclusively settled by Edwin Hubble in the early 1920s using the Mount Wilson observatory 100 inch (2.5 m) Hooker telescope. With the light-gathering power of this new telescope he was able to produce astronomical photographs that resolved the outer parts of some spiral nebulae as collections of individual stars. He was also able to identify some Cepheid variables that he could use as a benchmark to estimate the distance to the nebulae: proving they were far too distant to be part of the Milky Way.[132] In 1936, Hubble produced a classification system for galaxies that is used to this day, the Hubble sequence.[133]
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Old 02-16-2013, 02:40 PM   #10
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you dont want me coming around dressed in black homie
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Honestly dude, this is why I want to go to hell. Hell is crackin.
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Did I scare you?
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Old 02-16-2013, 02:59 PM   #11
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i used to throw eggs off my terrace to that joint ^
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Old 02-16-2013, 03:01 PM   #12
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lol the 80's was cheesey


lol @ michael rappaport on lead vocals
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Old 02-16-2013, 03:05 PM   #13
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then you are missing out because you refuse to read and research what's going on in the world
if you want to continue to be ignorant of what your gub mints are doing to you, go right ahead
those who refuse to learn will suffer.
just in case you change your mind, here is clearer proof that what i was saying is correct - i will not spoon feed you this information. you have to stop being lazy and read it for yourself - just because one thing turned you off, you shouldn't stop learning.

As you probably know, galaxies aren’t individual objects, but vast groupings of stars. In fact, “vast” isn’t a big enough word to describe how many stars there are in galaxies. So, how many stars are in galaxies?
Well, that question depends on the type of the galaxy. The smallest galaxies are called dwarf galaxies. They’re too small to form the vast spiral shape that we see in galaxies like the Milky Way and Andromeda. A dwarf galaxy can have as few as 10 million stars. These dwarf galaxies are constantly being absorbed into larger and larger galaxies.
Our own Milky Way is a spiral galaxy. These are much more massive than the relatively tiny dwarf galaxies, and contain hundreds of billions of stars. For example, the Milky Way contains 200 billion stars – 200,000,000,000 stars. The nearby Andromeda galaxy is much more massive than the Milky Way and contains 1 trillion stars; 5 times as many stars as the Milky Way.
The largest galaxies in the Universe are known as ellipticals. These enormous galaxies have lost their spiral shape through many interactions between large galaxies. They’re found at the cores of the largest galaxy clusters. The biggest galaxy ever discovered is inside the Abell 2029 cluster and contains 100 trillion stars. That’s 100,000,000,000,000 stars.
And just think, there are 100 billion galaxies in the observable Universe. When you put those numbers together, you get an estimate of 1024 stars in the entire Universe. Or a 1 followed by 24 zeroes. That’s 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 stars.
We have written many articles about stars on Universe Today. Here’s an article about how many stars there are in the Milky Way. And here’s an article about the largest structure in the Universe.
Want more information on stars? Here’s Hubblesite’s News Releases about Stars, and more information from NASA’s imagine the Universe.
We have recorded several episodes of Astronomy Cast about stars. Here are two that you might find helpful: Episode 12: Where Do Baby Stars Come From, and Episode 13: Where Do Stars Go When they Die?

The Milky Way is the galaxy that contains our Solar System.[11][12][13][nb 1] This name derives from its appearance as a dim "milky" glowing band arching across the night sky, in which the naked eye cannot distinguish individual stars. The term "Milky Way" is a translation of the Classical Latin via lactea, from the Hellenistic Greek γαλαξίας κύκλος (pr. galaxías kýklos, "milky circle").[14][15][16] The Milky Way appears like a band because it is a disk-shaped structure being viewed from inside. The fact that this faint band of light is made up of stars was proven in 1610 when Galileo Galilei used his telescope to resolve it into individual stars. In the 1920s, observations by astronomer Edwin Hubble showed that the Milky Way is just one of many galaxies.
The Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy 100,000–120,000 light-years in diameter containing 200–400 billion stars. It may contain at least as many planets.[17][18] The Solar System is located within the disk, around two thirds of the way out from the Galactic Center, on the inner edge of a spiral-shaped concentration of gas and dust called the Orion Arm. The stars in the inner ≈10,000 light-years are organized in a bulge and one or more bars. The very center is marked by an intense radio source named Sagittarius A* which is likely to be a supermassive black hole. Stars and gas throughout the Galaxy rotate about the center at approximately the same speed, which contradicts the laws of Keplerian dynamics. This indicates that much of the mass of the Milky Way, known as dark matter, does not emit or absorb electromagnetic radiation.[19] The rotational period is about 200 million years at the position of the Sun.[8] The Galaxy as a whole is moving at a velocity of 552 to 630 km per second, depending on the relative frame of reference. It is estimated to be about 13.2 billion years old, nearly as old as the Universe. Surrounded by several smaller satellite galaxies, the Milky Way is part of the Local Group of galaxies, which forms a subcomponent of the Virgo Supercluster.

When observing the night sky, the term "Milky Way" is limited to the hazy band of white light some 30 degrees wide arcing across the sky[20] (although all of the stars that can be seen with the naked eye are part of the Milky Way Galaxy). The light in this band originates from un-resolved stars and other material that lie within the Galactic plane. Dark regions within the band, such as the Great Rift and the Coalsack, correspond to areas where light from distant stars is blocked by interstellar dust.
The Milky Way has a relatively low surface brightness. Its visibility can be greatly reduced by background light such as light pollution or stray light from the moon. It is readily visible when the limiting magnitude is +5.1 or better, while showing a great deal of detail at +6.1.[21] This makes the Milky Way difficult to see from any brightly lit urban or suburban location but very prominent when viewed from a rural area when the moon is below the horizon.[nb 2]
The Milky Way passes through parts of roughly 30 constellations. The center of the Galaxy lies in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius; it is here that the Milky Way is brightest. From Sagittarius, the hazy band of white light appears to pass westward to the Galactic anticenter in Auriga. The band then continues westward the rest of the way around the sky back to Sagittarius. The fact that the band divides the night sky into two roughly equal hemispheres indicates that the Solar System lies close to the Galactic plane.[citation needed]
The Galactic plane is inclined by about 60 degrees to the ecliptic (the plane of the Earth's orbit). Relative to the celestial equator, it passes as far north as the constellation of Cassiopeia and as far south as the constellation of Crux, indicating the high inclination of Earth's equatorial plane and the plane of the ecliptic relative to the Galactic plane. The north Galactic pole is situated at right ascension 12h 49m, declination +27.4° (B1950) near beta Comae Berenices, and the south Galactic pole is near alpha Sculptoris. Because of this high inclination, depending on the time of night and the year, the arc of Milky Way can appear relatively low or relatively high in the sky. For observers from about 65 degrees north to 65 degrees south on the Earth's surface the Milky Way passes directly overhead twice a day.

The stellar disk of the Milky Way Galaxy is approximately 100,000 ly (31 kpc) in diameter, and is, on average, about 1,000 ly (0.3 kpc) thick.[2] As a guide to the relative physical scale of the Milky Way, if it were reduced to 100 m (110 yd) in diameter, the Solar System, including the hypothesized Oort cloud, would be no more than 1 mm (0.039 in) in width. The nearest star, Proxima Centauri, would be 4.2 mm (0.17 in) distant.[nb 3] Alternatively visualized, if the Solar System out to Pluto were the size of a US quarter (25 mm (0.98 in)) in diameter, the Milky way would be a disk approximately 2,000 km (1,200 mi) in diameter, having roughly one-third the area of the United States.[22]
The Milky Way contains at least 100 billion stars[23] and may have up to 400 billion stars.[24][25] The exact figure depends on the number of very low-mass, or dwarf stars, which are hard to detect, especially at distances of more than 300 ly (90 pc) from the Sun. As a comparison, the neighboring Andromeda Galaxy contains an estimated one trillion (1012) stars.[26] Filling the space between the stars is a disk of gas and dust called the interstellar medium. This disk has at least a comparable extent in radius to the stars,[27] while the thickness of the gas layer ranges from hundreds of light years for the colder gas to thousands of light years for warmer gas.[28][29] Both gravitational microlensing and planetary transit observations indicate that there may be at least as many planets bound to stars as there are stars in the Milky Way,[17][30] while microlensing measurements indicate that there are more rogue planets not bound to host stars than there are stars.[31][32] The Milky Way Galaxy contains at least one planet per star, resulting in 100–400 billion planets, according to a study by Caltech astronomers published in January, 2013.[18] Astronomers at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) reported in January, 2013, that "at least 17 billion" Earth-sized exoplanets are estimated to reside in the Milky Way Galaxy.[33] Such Earth-sized planets may be more numerous than gas giants.[17] Besides exoplanets, "exocomets", comets beyond the Solar System, have also been detected and may be common in the Milky Way Galaxy.[33]
The disk of stars in the Milky Way does not have a sharp edge beyond which there are no stars. Rather, the concentration of stars drops smoothly with distance from the center of the Galaxy. Beyond a radius of roughly 40,000 ly (12 kpc), the number of stars per cubic parsec drops much faster with radius,[34] for reasons that are not understood. Surrounding the Galactic disk is a spherical Galactic Halo of stars and globular clusters that extends further outward, but is limited in size by the orbits of two Milky Way satellites, the Large and the Small Magellanic Clouds, whose closest approach to the Galactic center is about 180,000 ly (55 kpc).[35] At this distance or beyond, the orbits of most halo objects would be disrupted by the Magellanic Clouds. Hence, such objects would probably be ejected from the vicinity of the Milky Way. The integrated absolute visual magnitude of the Milky Way is estimated to be −20.9.[36]
Estimates for the mass of the Milky Way vary, depending upon the method and data used. At the low end of the estimate range, the mass of the Milky Way is 5.8×1011 solar masses (M☉), somewhat smaller than the Andromeda Galaxy.[37][38][39] Measurements using the Very Long Baseline Array in 2009 found velocities as large as 254 km/s for stars at the outer edge of the Milky Way, higher than the previously accepted value of 220 km/s.[40] As the orbital velocity depends on the total mass inside the orbital radius, this suggests that the Milky Way is more massive, roughly equaling the mass of Andromeda Galaxy at 7×1011 M☉ within 160,000 ly (49 kpc) of its center.[41] A 2010 measurement of the radial velocity of halo stars finds the mass enclosed within 80 kiloparsecs is 7×1011 M☉.[42] Most of the mass of the Galaxy appears to be matter of unknown form which interacts with other matter through gravitational but not electromagnetic forces; this is dubbed dark matter. A dark matter halo is spread out relatively uniformly to a distance beyond one hundred kiloparsecs from the Galactic Center. Mathematical models of the Milky Way suggest that the total mass of the entire Galaxy lies in the range 1–1.5×1012 M☉.[6]

The Galaxy consists of a bar-shaped core region surrounded by a disk of gas, dust and stars. The gas, dust and stars are organized in roughly logarithmic spiral arm structures (see Spiral arms below). The mass distribution within the Galaxy closely resembles the SBc Hubble classification, which is a spiral galaxy with relatively loosely wound arms.[1] Astronomers first began to suspect that the Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy, rather than an ordinary spiral galaxy, in the 1990s.[44] Their suspicions were confirmed by the Spitzer Space Telescope observations in 2005[45] that showed the Galaxy's central bar to be larger than previously suspected.
[edit]Galactic Center
Main article: Galactic Center
The Sun is 8.0–8.7 kpc (26,000–28,000 ly) from the Galactic Center. This value is estimated based upon geometric-based methods or using selected astronomical objects that serve as standard candles, with different techniques yielding different values within this approximate range.[7][46][47][48][49] In the inner few kpc (≈10,000 light-years) is a dense concentration of mostly old stars in a roughly spheroidal shape called the bulge.[50] It has been proposed that our galaxy lacks a bulge formed due to a collision and merger between previous galaxies and that instead has a pseudobulge formed by its central bar.[51]
The Galactic Center is marked by an intense radio source named Sagittarius A*. The motion of material around the center indicates that Sagittarius A* harbors a massive, compact object.[52] This concentration of mass is best explained as a supermassive black hole[nb 4][7][46] with an estimated mass of 4.1–4.5 million times the mass of the Sun.[46] Observations indicate that there are supermassive black holes located near the center of most normal galaxies.[53][54]
The nature of the Galaxy's bar is actively debated, with estimates for its half-length and orientation spanning from 1–5 kpc (3,300–16,000 ly) (short or a long bar) and 10–50 degrees relative to the line of sight from Earth to the Galactic Center.[48][49][55] Certain authors advocate that the Galaxy features two distinct bars, one nestled within the other.[56] The bar is delineated by red clump stars. However, RR Lyr variables do not trace a prominent Galactic bar.[49][57][58] The bar may be surrounded by a ring called the "5-kpc ring" that contains a large fraction of the molecular hydrogen present in the Galaxy, as well as most of the Milky Way's star formation activity. Viewed from the Andromeda Galaxy, it would be the brightest feature of our own Galaxy.[59]

Beyond the gravitational influence of the Galactic bars, astronomers generally organize the interstellar medium and stars in the disk of the Milky Way in four spiral arms.[60] All of these arms contain more interstellar gas and dust than the Galactic average as well as a high concentration of star formation, traced by H II regions[61][62] and molecular clouds.[63] Counts of stars in near infrared light indicate that two arms contain approximately 30% more red giant stars than would be expected in the absence of a spiral arm, while two do not contain more red giant stars than regions outside of arms.[64][65]
Maps of the Milky Way's spiral structure are notoriously uncertain and exhibit striking differences.[43][60][62][66][67][68][69][70] Some 150 years after Alexander (1852)[71] first suggested that the Milky Way was a spiral, there is currently no consensus on the nature of the Galaxy's spiral arms. Perfect logarithmic spiral patterns ineptly describe features near the Sun,[62][69] namely since galaxies commonly exhibit arms that branch, merge, twist unexpectedly, and feature a degree of irregularity.[49][69][70] The possible scenario of the Sun within a spur / Local arm[62] emphasizes that point and indicates that such features are probably not unique, and exist elsewhere in the Galaxy.[69]
As in most spiral galaxies, each spiral arm can be described as a logarithmic spiral. Estimates of the pitch angle of the arms range from ≈7° to ≈25°.[64][72] Until recently, there were thought to be four major spiral arms which all start near the Galaxy's center. These are named as follows, with the positions of the arms shown in the image at right:

Another interesting aspect is the so-called "wind-up problem" of the spiral arms. If the inner parts of the arms rotate faster than the outer part, then the galaxy will wind up so much that the spiral structure will be thinned out. But this is not what is observed in spiral galaxies; instead, astronomers propose that the spiral pattern is a density wave emanating from the Galactic Center. This can be likened to a moving traffic jam on a highway—the cars are all moving, but there is always a region of slow-moving cars. This model also agrees with enhanced star formation in or near spiral arms; the compressional waves increase the density of molecular hydrogen and protostars form as a result.
[edit]Halo
The Galactic disk is surrounded by a spheroidal halo of old stars and globular clusters, of which 90% lie within 100,000 light-years (30 kpc) of the Galactic Center,[74] suggesting a stellar halo diameter of 200,000 light-years. However, a few globular clusters have been found farther, such as PAL 4 and AM1 at more than 200,000 light-years away from the Galactic Center. About 40% of the galaxy's clusters are on retrograde orbits, which means they move in the opposite direction from the Milky Way rotation.[75] The globular clusters can follow rosette orbits about the Galaxy, in contrast to the elliptical orbit of a planet around a star.[76]
Astronomers have also found evidence that the Milky Way Galaxy is embedded with a large amount of hot gas in the halo. They found this by using Chandra X-ray Observatory. The halo extends for hundreds of thousand of light years. The mass of the halo is estimated to the mass of the stars in the galaxy. The factors of these depends on the amount of oxygen to hydrogen.[77] The temperature of this halo was said to be between 1 million and 2.5 million kelvin or a few hundred times hotter than the surface of the sun, stated by scientists [78] (news.discovery.com).
While the disk contains gas and dust which obscure the view in some wavelengths, the spheroid component does not. Active star formation takes place in the disk (especially in the spiral arms, which represent areas of high density), but not in the halo. Open clusters also occur primarily in the disk.
Discoveries in the early 21st century have added dimension to the knowledge of the Milky Way's structure. With the discovery that the disk of the Andromeda Galaxy (M31) extends much further than previously thought,[79] the possibility of the disk of the Milky Way Galaxy extending further is apparent, and this is supported by evidence from the 2004 discovery of the Outer Arm extension of the Cygnus Arm.[73][80] With the discovery of the Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy came the discovery of a ribbon of galactic debris as the polar orbit of the dwarf and its interaction with the Milky Way tears it apart. Similarly, with the discovery of the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy, it was found that a ring of galactic debris from its interaction with the Milky Way encircles the Galactic disk.
On January 9, 2006, Mario Jurić and others of Princeton University announced that the Sloan Digital Sky Survey of the northern sky found a huge and diffuse structure (spread out across an area around 5,000 times the size of a full moon) within the Milky Way that does not seem to fit within current models. The collection of stars rises close to perpendicular to the plane of the spiral arms of the Galaxy. The proposed likely interpretation is that a dwarf galaxy is merging with the Milky Way. This galaxy is tentatively named the Virgo Stellar Stream and is found in the direction of Virgo about 30,000 light-years (9 kpc) away.[81]
Observations of distant galaxies indicate that the Universe had about one-sixth as much baryonic (ordinary) matter as dark matter when it was just a few billion years old. However, only about half of those baryons are accounted for in the modern Universe based on observations of nearby galaxies like the Milky Way.[82] On September 24, 2012, a team of five astronomers working with the Chandra X-ray Observatory, along with data gathered by the XMM-Newton, and Suzaku (satellite) missions, announced that the halo had a mass nearly equivalent to the baryons in the galaxy itself. They also discovered that it reaches much farther then previously thought, with new estimates showing that it extends as far as the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds.[83][84] If these findings are confirmed it could be the identity of the missing baryons around the Milky Way.[82]

Gamma-ray bubbles
On November 9, 2010, Doug Finkbeiner of the Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics announced that he had detected two gigantic spherical bubbles of high energy emission that are erupting to the north and the south of the Milky Way core, using data of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The diameter of each of the bubbles is about 25,000 light-years (7.7 kpc); they stretch up to Grus and to Virgo on the night-sky of the southern hemisphere. Their origin remains unclear, so far.[85][86]
[edit]Sun's location and neighborhood

Diagram of the Sun location in the Milky Way Galaxy. The angles represent longitudes in the galactic coordinate system.

Diagram of the stars in the Solar neighborhood.
The Sun (and therefore the Earth and the Solar System) is near the inner rim of the Galaxy's Orion Arm, in the Local Fluff inside the Local Bubble, and in the Gould Belt, at a distance of 8.33 ± 0.35 kiloparsecs (27,200 ± 1,100 ly) from the Galactic Center.[7][46][87] The Sun is currently 5–30 parsecs (16–98 ly) from the central plane of the Galactic disk.[88] The distance between the local arm and the next arm out, the Perseus Arm, is about 6,500 light-years (2.0 kpc).[89] The Sun, and thus the Solar System, is found in the Galactic habitable zone.
There are about 208 stars brighter than absolute magnitude 8.5 within a sphere with a radius of 15 parsecs (49 ly) from the Sun, giving a density of 0.0147 such stars per cubic parsec, or 0.000424 per cubic light-year (from List of nearest bright stars). On the other hand, there are 64 known stars (of any magnitude, not counting 4 brown dwarfs) within 5 parsecs (16 ly) of the Sun, giving a density of 0.122 stars per cubic parsec, or 0.00352 per cubic light-year (from List of nearest stars), illustrating the fact that most stars are less bright than absolute magnitude 8.5.[citation needed][original research?]
The Apex of the Sun's Way, or the solar apex, is the direction that the Sun travels through space in the Milky Way. The general direction of the Sun's Galactic motion is towards the star Vega near the constellation of Hercules, at an angle of roughly 60 sky degrees to the direction of the Galactic Center. The Sun's orbit around the Galaxy is expected to be roughly elliptical with the addition of perturbations due to the Galactic spiral arms and non-uniform mass distributions. In addition, the Sun oscillates up and down relative to the Galactic plane approximately 2.7 times per orbit. This is very similar to how a simple harmonic oscillator works with no drag force (damping) term. These oscillations were until recently thought to coincide with mass extinction periods on Earth.[90] However, a reanalysis of the effects of the Sun's transit through the spiral structure based on CO data has failed to find these correlations.[91]
It takes the Solar System about 225–250 million years to complete one orbit around the Galaxy (a Galactic year),[92] so the Sun is thought to have completed 18–20 orbits during its lifetime and 1/1250 of a revolution since the origin of humans. The orbital speed of the Solar System about the center of the Galaxy is approximately 220 km/s or 0.073% of the speed of light. At this speed, it takes around 1,400 years for the Solar System to travel a distance of 1 light-year, or 8 days to travel 1 AU (astronomical unit).[93]


here is the heavy mental portion
Galactic rotation
The stars and gas in the Galaxy rotate about its center differentially, meaning that the rotation period varies with location. As is typical for spiral galaxies, the distribution of mass in the Milky Way Galaxy is such that the orbital speed of most stars in the Galaxy does not depend strongly on their distance from the center. Away from the central bulge or outer rim, the typical stellar orbital speed is between 210 and 240 km/s.[96] Hence the orbital period of the typical star is directly proportional only to the length of the path traveled. This is unlike the situation within the Solar System, where two-body gravitational dynamics dominate and different orbits have significantly different velocities associated with them. The rotation curve (shown in the figure) describes this rotation.
If the Galaxy contained only the mass observed in stars, gas, and other baryonic (ordinary) matter, the rotation speed would decrease with distance from the center. However, the observed curve is relatively flat, indicating that there is additional mass that cannot be detected directly with electromagnetic radiation. This inconsistency is attributed to dark matter.[19] Alternatively, a minority of astronomers propose that a modification of the law of gravity may explain the observed rotation curve.[97] The constant rotation speed of most of the Galaxy means that objects further from the Galactic center take longer to orbit the center than objects closer in.
[edit]Formation

Main article: Galaxy formation and evolution
The Milky Way began as one or several small overdensities in the mass distribution in the Universe shortly after the Big Bang. Some of these overdensities were the seeds of globular clusters in which the oldest remaining stars in what is now the Milky Way formed. These stars and clusters now comprise the stellar halo of the Galaxy. Within a few billion years of the birth of the first stars, the mass of the Milky Way was large enough so that it was spinning relatively quickly. Due to conservation of angular momentum, this led the gaseous interstellar medium to collapse from a roughly spheroidal shape to a disk. Therefore, later generations of stars formed in this spiral disk. Most younger stars, including the Sun, are observed to be in the disk.[98][99]
Since the first stars began to form, the Milky Way has grown through both galaxy mergers (particularly early in the Galaxy's growth) and accretion of gas directly from the Galactic halo.[99] The Milky Way is currently accreting material from its two nearest satellite galaxies, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds, through the Magellanic Stream. Direct accretion of gas is observed in high velocity clouds like the Smith Cloud.[100][101] However, properties of the Milky Way such as stellar mass, angular momentum, and metallicity in its outermost regions suggest it has suffered no mergers with large galaxies in the last 10 billion years. This lack of recent major mergers is unusual among similar spiral galaxies; its neighbour the Andromeda Galaxy appears to have a more typical history shaped by more recent mergers with relatively large galaxies.[102][103]
According to recent studies, the Milky Way as well as Andromeda lie in what in the galaxy color-magnitude diagram is known as the green valley, a region populated by galaxies in transition from the blue cloud (galaxies actively forming new stars) to the red sequence (galaxies that lack star formation). Star formation activity in green valley galaxies is slowing as they run out of star-forming gas in the interstellar medium. In simulated galaxies with similar properties, star formation will typically have been extinguished within about five billion years from now, even accounting for the expected, short-term increase in the rate of star formation due to the collision between both our galaxy and M31.[104] In fact, measurements of other galaxies similar to our own suggest it's among the reddest and brightest spiral galaxies that are still forming new stars and it's just slightly bluer than the bluest red sequence galaxies.[105]

Age
The ages of individual stars in the Milky Way can be estimated by measuring the abundance of long-lived radioactive elements such as thorium-232 and uranium-238, then comparing the results to estimates of their original abundance, a technique called nucleocosmochronology. These yield values of about 14.0 ± 2.4 billion years (Ga) for CS 31082-001 and 13.8 ± 4 billion years for BD+17° 3248[citation needed]. Once a white dwarf star is formed, it begins to undergo radiative cooling and the surface temperature steadily drops. By measuring the temperatures of the coolest of these white dwarfs and comparing them to their expected initial temperature, an age estimate can be made. With this technique, the age of the globular cluster M4 was estimated as 12.7 ± 0.7 billion years. Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in the Milky Way Galaxy, which thus set a lower limit on the age of the galaxy. Age estimates of the oldest of these clusters gives a best fit estimate of 12.6 billion years, and a 95% confidence upper limit of 16 billion years.[106]
In 2007, a star in the galactic halo, HE 1523-0901, was estimated to be about 13.2 billion years old, ≈0.5 billion years less than the age of the universe. As the oldest known object in the Milky Way at that time, this measurement placed a lower limit on the age of the Milky Way.[5] This estimate was determined using the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph of the Very Large Telescope to measure the relative strengths of spectral lines caused by the presence of thorium and other elements created by the R-process. The line strengths yield abundances of different elemental isotopes, from which an estimate of the age of the star can be derived using nucleocosmochronology.[5]
The age of stars in the galactic thin disk has also been estimated using nucleocosmochronology. Measurements of thin disk stars yield an estimate that the thin disk formed 8.8 ± 1.7 billion years ago. These measurements suggest there was a hiatus of almost 5 billion years between the formation of the galactic halo and the thin disk.[107]
[edit]Environment


Diagram of the galaxies in the Local Group relative to the Milky Way.

The position of the Local Group within the Virgo Supercluster.
Main articles: Local Group and Andromeda–Milky Way collision
The Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy are a binary system of giant spiral galaxies belonging to a group of 50 closely bound galaxies known as the Local Group, itself being part of the Virgo Supercluster.
Two smaller galaxies and a number of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group orbit the Milky Way. The largest of these is the Large Magellanic Cloud with a diameter of 20,000 light-years. It has a close companion, the Small Magellanic Cloud. The Magellanic Stream is a peculiar streamer of neutral hydrogen gas connecting these two small galaxies. The stream is thought to have been dragged from the Magellanic Clouds in tidal interactions with the Milky Way. Some of the dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way are Canis Major Dwarf (the closest), Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy, Ursa Minor Dwarf, Sculptor Dwarf, Sextans Dwarf, Fornax Dwarf, and Leo I Dwarf. The smallest Milky Way dwarf galaxies are only 500 light-years in diameter. These include Carina Dwarf, Draco Dwarf, and Leo II Dwarf. There may still be undetected dwarf galaxies, which are dynamically bound to the Milky Way, as well as some that have already been absorbed by the Milky Way, such as Omega Centauri. Observations through the Zone of Avoidance are frequently detecting new distant and nearby galaxies. Some galaxies consisting mostly of gas and dust may also have evaded detection so far.
In January 2006, researchers reported that the heretofore unexplained warp in the disk of the Milky Way has now been mapped and found to be a ripple or vibration set up by the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds as they circle the Galaxy, causing vibrations at certain frequencies when they pass through its edges.[108] Previously, these two galaxies, at around 2% of the mass of the Milky Way, were considered too small to influence the Milky Way. However, by taking into account dark matter, the movement of these two galaxies creates a wake that influences the larger Milky Way. Taking dark matter into account results in an approximately twentyfold increase in mass for the galaxy. This calculation is according to a computer model made by Martin Weinberg of the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In this model, the dark matter is spreading out from the Galactic disk with the known gas layer. As a result, the model predicts that the gravitational effect of the Magellanic Clouds is amplified as they pass through the Galaxy.
Current measurements suggest the Andromeda Galaxy is approaching us at 100 to 140 kilometers per second. The Milky Way may collide with it in 3 to 4 billion years, depending on the importance of unknown lateral components to the galaxies' relative motion. If they collide, individual stars within the galaxies would not collide, but instead the two galaxies will merge to form a single elliptical galaxy over the course of about a billion years.[109]Age
The ages of individual stars in the Milky Way can be estimated by measuring the abundance of long-lived radioactive elements such as thorium-232 and uranium-238, then comparing the results to estimates of their original abundance, a technique called nucleocosmochronology. These yield values of about 14.0 ± 2.4 billion years (Ga) for CS 31082-001 and 13.8 ± 4 billion years for BD+17° 3248[citation needed]. Once a white dwarf star is formed, it begins to undergo radiative cooling and the surface temperature steadily drops. By measuring the temperatures of the coolest of these white dwarfs and comparing them to their expected initial temperature, an age estimate can be made. With this technique, the age of the globular cluster M4 was estimated as 12.7 ± 0.7 billion years. Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in the Milky Way Galaxy, which thus set a lower limit on the age of the galaxy. Age estimates of the oldest of these clusters gives a best fit estimate of 12.6 billion years, and a 95% confidence upper limit of 16 billion years.[106]
In 2007, a star in the galactic halo, HE 1523-0901, was estimated to be about 13.2 billion years old, ≈0.5 billion years less than the age of the universe. As the oldest known object in the Milky Way at that time, this measurement placed a lower limit on the age of the Milky Way.[5] This estimate was determined using the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph of the Very Large Telescope to measure the relative strengths of spectral lines caused by the presence of thorium and other elements created by the R-process. The line strengths yield abundances of different elemental isotopes, from which an estimate of the age of the star can be derived using nucleocosmochronology.[5]
The age of stars in the galactic thin disk has also been estimated using nucleocosmochronology. Measurements of thin disk stars yield an estimate that the thin disk formed 8.8 ± 1.7 billion years ago. These measurements suggest there was a hiatus of almost 5 billion years between the formation of the galactic halo and the thin disk.[107]
[edit]Environment


Diagram of the galaxies in the Local Group relative to the Milky Way.

The position of the Local Group within the Virgo Supercluster.
Main articles: Local Group and Andromeda–Milky Way collision
The Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy are a binary system of giant spiral galaxies belonging to a group of 50 closely bound galaxies known as the Local Group, itself being part of the Virgo Supercluster.
Two smaller galaxies and a number of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group orbit the Milky Way. The largest of these is the Large Magellanic Cloud with a diameter of 20,000 light-years. It has a close companion, the Small Magellanic Cloud. The Magellanic Stream is a peculiar streamer of neutral hydrogen gas connecting these two small galaxies. The stream is thought to have been dragged from the Magellanic Clouds in tidal interactions with the Milky Way. Some of the dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way are Canis Major Dwarf (the closest), Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy, Ursa Minor Dwarf, Sculptor Dwarf, Sextans Dwarf, Fornax Dwarf, and Leo I Dwarf. The smallest Milky Way dwarf galaxies are only 500 light-years in diameter. These include Carina Dwarf, Draco Dwarf, and Leo II Dwarf. There may still be undetected dwarf galaxies, which are dynamically bound to the Milky Way, as well as some that have already been absorbed by the Milky Way, such as Omega Centauri. Observations through the Zone of Avoidance are frequently detecting new distant and nearby galaxies. Some galaxies consisting mostly of gas and dust may also have evaded detection so far.
In January 2006, researchers reported that the heretofore unexplained warp in the disk of the Milky Way has now been mapped and found to be a ripple or vibration set up by the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds as they circle the Galaxy, causing vibrations at certain frequencies when they pass through its edges.[108] Previously, these two galaxies, at around 2% of the mass of the Milky Way, were considered too small to influence the Milky Way. However, by taking into account dark matter, the movement of these two galaxies creates a wake that influences the larger Milky Way. Taking dark matter into account results in an approximately twentyfold increase in mass for the galaxy. This calculation is according to a computer model made by Martin Weinberg of the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In this model, the dark matter is spreading out from the Galactic disk with the known gas layer. As a result, the model predicts that the gravitational effect of the Magellanic Clouds is amplified as they pass through the Galaxy.
Current measurements suggest the Andromeda Galaxy is approaching us at 100 to 140 kilometers per second. The Milky Way may collide with it in 3 to 4 billion years, depending on the importance of unknown lateral components to the galaxies' relative motion. If they collide, individual stars within the galaxies would not collide, but instead the two galaxies will merge to form a single elliptical galaxy over the course of about a billion years.[109]
Age
The ages of individual stars in the Milky Way can be estimated by measuring the abundance of long-lived radioactive elements such as thorium-232 and uranium-238, then comparing the results to estimates of their original abundance, a technique called nucleocosmochronology. These yield values of about 14.0 ± 2.4 billion years (Ga) for CS 31082-001 and 13.8 ± 4 billion years for BD+17° 3248[citation needed]. Once a white dwarf star is formed, it begins to undergo radiative cooling and the surface temperature steadily drops. By measuring the temperatures of the coolest of these white dwarfs and comparing them to their expected initial temperature, an age estimate can be made. With this technique, the age of the globular cluster M4 was estimated as 12.7 ± 0.7 billion years. Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in the Milky Way Galaxy, which thus set a lower limit on the age of the galaxy. Age estimates of the oldest of these clusters gives a best fit estimate of 12.6 billion years, and a 95% confidence upper limit of 16 billion years.[106]
In 2007, a star in the galactic halo, HE 1523-0901, was estimated to be about 13.2 billion years old, ≈0.5 billion years less than the age of the universe. As the oldest known object in the Milky Way at that time, this measurement placed a lower limit on the age of the Milky Way.[5] This estimate was determined using the UV-Visual Echelle Spectrograph of the Very Large Telescope to measure the relative strengths of spectral lines caused by the presence of thorium and other elements created by the R-process. The line strengths yield abundances of different elemental isotopes, from which an estimate of the age of the star can be derived using nucleocosmochronology.[5]
The age of stars in the galactic thin disk has also been estimated using nucleocosmochronology. Measurements of thin disk stars yield an estimate that the thin disk formed 8.8 ± 1.7 billion years ago. These measurements suggest there was a hiatus of almost 5 billion years between the formation of the galactic halo and the thin disk.[107]
[edit]Environment


Diagram of the galaxies in the Local Group relative to the Milky Way.

The position of the Local Group within the Virgo Supercluster.
Main articles: Local Group and Andromeda–Milky Way collision
The Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy are a binary system of giant spiral galaxies belonging to a group of 50 closely bound galaxies known as the Local Group, itself being part of the Virgo Supercluster.
Two smaller galaxies and a number of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group orbit the Milky Way. The largest of these is the Large Magellanic Cloud with a diameter of 20,000 light-years. It has a close companion, the Small Magellanic Cloud. The Magellanic Stream is a peculiar streamer of neutral hydrogen gas connecting these two small galaxies. The stream is thought to have been dragged from the Magellanic Clouds in tidal interactions with the Milky Way. Some of the dwarf galaxies orbiting the Milky Way are Canis Major Dwarf (the closest), Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy, Ursa Minor Dwarf, Sculptor Dwarf, Sextans Dwarf, Fornax Dwarf, and Leo I Dwarf. The smallest Milky Way dwarf galaxies are only 500 light-years in diameter. These include Carina Dwarf, Draco Dwarf, and Leo II Dwarf. There may still be undetected dwarf galaxies, which are dynamically bound to the Milky Way, as well as some that have already been absorbed by the Milky Way, such as Omega Centauri. Observations through the Zone of Avoidance are frequently detecting new distant and nearby galaxies. Some galaxies consisting mostly of gas and dust may also have evaded detection so far.
In January 2006, researchers reported that the heretofore unexplained warp in the disk of the Milky Way has now been mapped and found to be a ripple or vibration set up by the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds as they circle the Galaxy, causing vibrations at certain frequencies when they pass through its edges.[108] Previously, these two galaxies, at around 2% of the mass of the Milky Way, were considered too small to influence the Milky Way. However, by taking into account dark matter, the movement of these two galaxies creates a wake that influences the larger Milky Way. Taking dark matter into account results in an approximately twentyfold increase in mass for the galaxy. This calculation is according to a computer model made by Martin Weinberg of the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In this model, the dark matter is spreading out from the Galactic disk with the known gas layer. As a result, the model predicts that the gravitational effect of the Magellanic Clouds is amplified as they pass through the Galaxy.
Current measurements suggest the Andromeda Galaxy is approaching us at 100 to 140 kilometers per second. The Milky Way may collide with it in 3 to 4 billion years, depending on the importance of unknown lateral components to the galaxies' relative motion. If they collide, individual stars within the galaxies would not collide, but instead the two galaxies will merge to form a single elliptical galaxy over the course of about a billion years.[109]

In the general sense, the absolute velocity of any object through space is not a meaningful question according to Einstein's special theory of relativity, which declares that there is no "preferred" inertial frame of reference in space with which to compare the object's motion. (Motion must always be specified with respect to another object.) This must be kept in mind when discussing the Galaxy's motion.
Astronomers believe the Milky Way is moving at approximately 630 km per second relative to the average velocity of galaxies taken over a large enough volume so that the expansion of the Universe dominates over local, random motions: the local co-moving frame of reference that moves with the Hubble flow.[110][further explanation needed] The Milky Way is moving in the general direction of the Great Attractor and other galaxy clusters, including the Shapley supercluster, behind it.[111] The Local Group (a cluster of gravitationally bound galaxies containing, among others, the Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy) is part of a supercluster called the Local Supercluster, centered near the Virgo Cluster: although they are moving away from each other at 967 km/s as part of the Hubble flow, this velocity is less than would be expected given the 16.8 million pc distance due to the gravitational attraction between the Local Group and the Virgo Cluster.[112]
Another reference frame is provided by the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The Milky Way is moving at 552 ± 6 km/s[10] with respect to the photons of the CMB, toward 10.5 right ascension, −24° declination (J2000 epoch, near the center of Hydra). This motion is observed by satellites such as the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) and the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) as a dipole contribution to the CMB, as photons in equilibrium in the CMB frame get blue-shifted in the direction of the motion and red-shifted in the opposite direction.[10]

AND THIS !
The shape of the Milky Way as deduced from star counts by William Herschel in 1785; the Solar System was assumed near center
As Aristotle (384–322 BC) informs us in Meteorologica (DK 59 A80), the Greek philosophers Anaxagoras (ca. 500–428 BC) and Democritus (450–370 BC) proposed the Milky Way might consist of distant stars. However, Aristotle himself believed the Milky Way to be caused by "the ignition of the fiery exhalation of some stars which were large, numerous and close together" and that the "ignition takes place in the upper part of the atmosphere, in the region of the world which is continuous with the heavenly motions."[122] The Neoplatonist philosopher Olympiodorus the Younger (c. 495–570 A.D.) criticized this view, arguing that if the Milky Way were sublunary it should appear different at different times and places on the Earth, and that it should have parallax, which it does not. In his view, the Milky Way was celestial. This idea would be influential later in the Islamic world.[123]
The Persian astronomer Abū Rayhān al-Bīrūnī (973–1048) proposed that the Milky Way is "a collection of countless fragments of the nature of nebulous stars".[124] The Andalusian astronomer Avempace (d. 1138) proposed the Milky Way to be made up of many stars but appears to be a continuous image due to the effect of refraction in the Earth's atmosphere, citing his observation of a conjunction of Jupiter and Mars in 1106 or 1107 as evidence.[122] Ibn Qayyim Al-Jawziyya (1292–1350) proposed the Milky Way Galaxy to be "a myriad of tiny stars packed together in the sphere of the fixed stars" and that these stars are larger than planets.[125]
According to Jamil Ragep, the Persian astronomer Naṣīr al-Dīn al-Ṭūsī (1201–1274) in his Tadhkira writes: "The Milky Way, i.e. the Galaxy, is made up of a very large number of small, tightly clustered stars, which, on account of their concentration and smallness, seem to be cloudy patches. Because of this, it was likened to milk in color."[126]
Actual proof of the Milky Way consisting of many stars came in 1610 when Galileo Galilei used a telescope to study the Milky Way and discovered that it was composed of a huge number of faint stars.[127] In a treatise in 1755, Immanuel Kant, drawing on earlier work by Thomas Wright, speculated (correctly) that the Milky Way might be a rotating body of a huge number of stars, held together by gravitational forces akin to the Solar System but on much larger scales. The resulting disk of stars would be seen as a band on the sky from our perspective inside the disk. Kant also conjectured that some of the nebulae visible in the night sky might be separate "galaxies" themselves, similar to our own. Kant referred to both our Galaxy and the "extragalactic nebulae" as "island universes", a term still current up to the 1930s.[128]
The first attempt to describe the shape of the Milky Way and the position of the Sun within it was carried out by William Herschel in 1785 by carefully counting the number of stars in different regions of the visible sky. He produced a diagram of the shape of the Galaxy with the Solar System close to the center.
In 1845, Lord Rosse constructed a new telescope and was able to distinguish between elliptical and spiral-shaped nebulae. He also managed to make out individual point sources in some of these nebulae, lending credence to Kant's earlier conjecture.[129]


Photograph of the "Great Andromeda Nebula" from 1899, later identified as the Andromeda Galaxy
In 1917, Heber Curtis had observed the nova S Andromedae within the "Great Andromeda Nebula" (Messier object M31). Searching the photographic record, he found 11 more novae. Curtis noticed that these novae were, on average, 10 magnitudes fainter than those that occurred within our Galaxy. As a result he was able to come up with a distance estimate of 150,000 parsecs. He became a proponent of the "island universes" hypothesis, which held that the spiral nebulae were actually independent galaxies.[130] In 1920 the Great Debate took place between Harlow Shapley and Heber Curtis, concerning the nature of the Milky Way, spiral nebulae, and the dimensions of the universe. To support his claim that the Great Andromeda Nebula was an external galaxy, Curtis noted the appearance of dark lanes resembling the dust clouds in the Milky Way, as well as the significant Doppler shift.[131]
The matter was conclusively settled by Edwin Hubble in the early 1920s using the Mount Wilson observatory 100 inch (2.5 m) Hooker telescope. With the light-gathering power of this new telescope he was able to produce astronomical photographs that resolved the outer parts of some spiral nebulae as collections of individual stars. He was also able to identify some Cepheid variables that he could use as a benchmark to estimate the distance to the nebulae: proving they were far too distant to be part of the Milky Way.[132] In 1936, Hubble produced a classification system for galaxies that is used to this day, the Hubble sequence.[133]
Wow man you sure got the douchebags on this forum itchy so for that alone I commend you although I will say it doesnt seem to take much to get the alphas going silly epsilon imagine what info our stories that might be heard if some WUCORP members didnt act like such serious "RICHARDS" hipocracy is just around the corner I guess some people just like to hear themselves talk which explains why they have their heads so far up their own A$$ great post my friend dont be discouraged by the over zealous virgins that infest every corner of this planet WUCORP no acception anyways to all the D bags get laid or try masterbation maybe you can rub out some of that hostility
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lol check 2, always bringing the funny jokes. that one made me really chuckle.
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lulz ';: teh counterpart of the lucy experiment haz multi cornered the star fleet

so here are what the gubb mints are say in

He had many of his fans believing in him, rooting for him, pulling for him.

But it seems he never completely convinced sports authorities of his alleged "superman" status.

An investigation into seven-time Tour de France winner Lance Armstrong has found that he was atop the largest doping conspiracy in the history not just of cycling but of all sports - findings which have ruined both his reputation and legacy. His cancer survival, touted as heroic given his accomplishments, will forever be mentioned in the sports history books with an asterisk beside it.

The revelations came in a 202-page indictment by the U.S. Anti-Doping Agency, which charged Armstrong in early October of six offenses regarding the use of banned substances, drug trafficking, administering drugs to teammates and aiding and abetting a monstrous cover-up between 1998 and 2005 - a period when he dominated the globally famous race.

The findings have had a dramatic impact not just on his millions of fans but on the cycling world itself. Dave Brailsford, British Cycling's performance director and who was key to Bradley Wiggins becoming the first Briton to win the race this year, said he was stunned to read the USADA findings.

"It is shocking, it's jaw dropping and it is very unpleasant," Brailsford.

A cocktail of banned substances

Shocking, indeed. So, too, is the witness list.

A total of 26 people, including 11 fellow cyclists from his U.S. Postal Service team, gave testimony to the USADA against Armstrong in a case the agency described as "more extensive than any previously revealed in professional sports history."

The findings have recently been sent to the International Cycling Union, which will have three weeks to refute the findings and appeal to the World Anti-Doping Agency, or just comply with a previous USADA decision to strip Armstrong of his Tour de France titles. In a statement earlier this month, the UCI said it would supply a "timely" response.

The findings are the result of a two-year investigation. The agency accused Armstrong "of using a cocktail of banned substances and blood transfusions," Britain's Telegraph newspaper reported.

Between investigative findings and testimony, the agency painted the picture of an elaborate doping ring which alleged involvement of fellow riders, support staff and even Armstrong's former wife. The doping program itself, said the agency, was the concoction of Michele Ferrari, a disgraced Italian doctor. Armstrong would travel across Europe before and during races to have his blood transfusions.

The agency's report also accused the cyclist of administering testosterone to a teammate, as well as threatening to get rid of fellow teammates if they did not follow Ferrari's program. The USADA also said Armstrong surrounded himself with drug runners "so that he could achieve his goal of winning the Tour de France year after year."

The report said there was a "code of silence" throughout cycling as Armstrong intimidated potential whistleblowers. The lengthy report referenced financial records, emails and laboratory test results which the agency believes indicates years' worth of doping.

'Massive and long-running scheme'

"The USPS Team doping conspiracy was professionally designed to groom and pressure athletes to use dangerous drugs to evade detection and to ensure its secrecy and ultimately gain an unfair competitive advantage through superior doping practices," said the agency's report. "A program -organized by individuals who thought they were above the rules and who still play a major and active role in sport today."

Not surprisingly, an unnamed spokesman for Armstrong refuted the agency's findings, the Telegraph said.

But the report went on to say that Armstrong would receive blood transfusions in the team doctor's hotel room, until French police tightened security. Then, Armstrong employed, in essence, a drug runner to deliver EPO, or Erythropoietin, which increase the number of red blood cells in the body (red blood cells transport oxygen to the tissues).

"Lance Armstrong and his handlers engaged in a massive and long-running scheme to use drugs, cover their tracks, intimidate witnesses, tarnish reputations, lie to hearing panels and the press and do whatever was necessary to conceal the truth," said the agency.





In September, Armstrong decided to avoid arbitration with the USADA to answer charges of doping. The agency, in response, stripped him then of his titles.



#1 - Obama admits U.S. government used Guatemalan prisoners for illegal medical experiments

When we exposed the U.S. government's long list of medical crimes against humanity back in 2006, the mainstream media was silent (http://www.naturalnews.com/019187.html). People insisted the government was ethical and honest, and it could never be involved in crimes against humanity. (ROFL!) When the truth came out about Guatemalan prisoner experiments, however, it went viral so quickly the mainstream media couldn't whitewash the story.

So now, the whole world knows the U.S. government and its National Institutes of Health (NIH) are medical criminals that murder innocent human beings in order to study new drugs for Big Pharma:
http://www.naturalnews.com/033483_Gu...medical_experi...

#2 - FDA caught using KGB-style infiltration and spying techniques to entrap raw milk distribution hub

It's legal to sell unpasteurized orange juice in America as long as you put a label on it, but selling unpasteurized milk earns you the "KGB treatment" from the FDA and the California Dept. of Agriculture, both of which have become criminal gangs running vindictive vengeance campaigns against target innocents. NaturalNews broke the story of how the FDA used spy cameras, secret infiltration techniques and other traps to gather evidence before raiding Rawesome Foods at gunpoint, then destroying $50,000+ in food in front of astonished witnesses.
http://www.naturalnews.com/033428_FDA_secret_war.html

#3 - Institute of Medicine's links with military industrial complex exposed by NaturalNews

In yet another investigative story that NaturalNews broke in 2011, we dug into the funding sources of the Institute of Medicine and discovered it receives enormous financial support from the Pentagon, military defense contractors and numerous globalist organizations that profit from war. No wonder the IOM promotes vaccines so aggressively -- it's a war against humanity, waged one syringe at a time. Read more:
http://www.naturalnews.com/033455_In..._vaccines.html

#4 - USDA caught running animal mass murder programs to kill birds and mammals

To the shock of many, the USDA was exposed this year for operating mass-murder programs that target animals such as birds, foxes, wild pigs and other creatures. This is primarily accomplished with mass poisoning chemicals that also end up killing other animals such as Bald Eagles.
http://www.naturalnews.com/031076_USDA_bird_deaths.html

#5 - Weather control technology confirmed and functional near Abu Dhabi

Mention "weather control technology" to your average fluoride head, and they think you're some kind of "wingnut" conspiracy theorist. Yet weather control technology is in full operation just outside Abu Dhabi, where a huge array of negative ion generators produce artificial rain storms that dump millions of gallons of fresh water on the desert landscape:
http://www.naturalnews.com/030998_we...Abu_Dhabi.html

#6 - InfoWars releases hidden camera water fluoridation video

Let there be no doubt about how dangerous, corrosive and even deadly those toxic fluoride chemicals really are. Alex Jones and the InfoWars team grabbed undercover water fluoridation video in Austin, Texas, and posted it on the internet. What's admitted on the video should be shocking to everyone:
http://www.naturalnews.com/033753_wa...dden_camera.ht...

#7 - Documents prove Dr. Wakefield was innocent, BMJ conspired to discredit him

In a turn of events that has yet to be acknowledged by the mainstream media, Dr. Andrew Wakefield was proven innocent of the spurious charges leveled against him. Documents prove that he did not fabricate his research as was claimed by the medical journals and the mainstream media, including CNN. In fact, the accusation itself was the real criminal fabrication.
http://www.naturalnews.com/031116_Dr...ritish_Medical...

See this story to learn more (and watch the video):
http://www.naturalnews.com/031211_An...field_BMJ.html

#8 - USDA conspires with Monsanto to de-regulate GE alfalfa

There's nothing quite like GMOs to slow-kill an entire nation. You get increased infertility, organ toxicity and runaway environmental contamination, too. In 2011, the USDA went all out on attacking the world with GMOs, unleashing both GE alfalfa and GE corn on the U.S. public:
http://www.naturalnews.com/031139_GE...egulation.html

GE corn:
http://www.naturalnews.com/031359_GE_corn_USDA.html

#9 - FDA admits factory-produced chicken meat contains arsenic

In 2011, the mainstream media went crazy reporting trace levels of arsenic in apple juice, but it never bothered to report on the much higher concentrations of arsenic found in chicken meat. Our NaturalNews story on arsenic found in chicken meat received a whopping 78,000 Facebook shares in 2011, making it one of our highest-shared stories of the year:
http://www.naturalnews.com/032659_arsenic_chicken.html

#10 - Merck vaccine scientist Dr. Maurice Hilleman admits vaccines contain cancer-causing viruses

Dr. Maurice Hilleman's secret vaccine recording emerged in 2011, causing shockwaves of disbelief to spread across the internet as people heard this Merck scientist laughing it up with other scientists as they joked about all the people who would die from cancer tumors after taking vaccine shots. You can hear the recording yourself on NaturalNews.TV. Click this link for details:
http://www.naturalnews.com/033584_Dr...eman_SV40.html

Learn more: http://www.naturalnews.com/034501_co...#ixzz2L6PQqW7R



that was just a 3rd of it

when you finish bee in in light ined, owl pos the rset
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